Pollution: fine particle alert in Haute-Garonne

The Haute-Garonne prefecture triggered the PM10 suspension particle warning procedure (the diameter of which is less than 10 micrometers) on Sunday, the air quality observatory in Occitan announced in a statement. , Atmo Occitanie.

In this department, the speed was reduced for the day of 20 km / h on roads and highways, according to a tweet from the prefecture.

"The main cause of this pollution is the 'accumulation of suspended particles due to a very stable atmosphere and low wind', explains Atmo Occitanie

"These particles can be emitted by road traffic, heating devices, industries, or can to be of natural origin, "observes the observatory in its communiqué.

The episode of pollution also affects the Tarn department, but at a lower level, the department being placed in information procedure.

the general population, the authorities recommend reducing intense physical activity and sports, and for the vulnerable to avoid traveling along major highways and their surroundings at peak periods.

Intrusion at the Cattenom nuclear power plant: Greenpeace judged on Tuesday

Eight activists and two officials of Greenpeace France are summoned Tuesday in the Thionville Criminal Court for an action carried out inside the site of the Cattenom nuclear power plant (Moselle) in October.

Pursued for "intrusion into meeting and with degradation in the enclosure of a civil installation sheltering nuclear materials ", the activists incurs five years of imprisonment and 75.000 euro of fine.

For the first time, the general director of the association, Jean-François Julliard, appears alongside the militants as a representative of Greenpeace France.

"It was necessary (for justice, ed) to have Greenpeace and not just natural persons", regretted with AFP the NGO lawyer Alexandre Faro, who fears "severe punishments and punitive damages"

 Photo of Yannick Rousselet, head of Greenpeace's nuclear campaign France, September 14, 2015 in Cherbourg-Octeville (Manche) (AFP / Archives - CHARLY TRIBALLEAU)

Photo archive of Yannick Rousselet, head of the nuclear campaign of Greenpeace France, September 14, 2015 in Cherbourg-Octeville ( Manche) (AFP / Archives – CHARLY TRIBALLEAU)

The head of the NGO's nuclear campaign, Yannick Rousselet, who had remained behind the gates of the plant on the day of the events, is also being prosecuted, for complicity. He was interviewed about ten days ago, said Mr. Faro.

On October 12, at dawn, eight Greenpeace activists were arrested after entering the plant to warn about the vulnerability of nuclear sites

They had broadcast on Greenpeace's Twitter account a video of a fireworks display they said they had fired near the building housing the fuel pool.

The Moselle prefecture and EDF had argued that the militants had not acceded to the nuclear zone

Contacted by AFP, EDF's lawyer did not wish to speak.

After the intrusion at Cattenom, the deputy director of EDF's nuclear fleet, Olivier Lamarre, called the militants "irresponsible (who) took risks" for "a communication operation".

"They go way too far (…) If they had been ill-intentioned or if there was doubt, things would have happened differently in a different time," he explained, suggesting that intervention Radical police force is provided for in case of serious threat.

According to Mr. Lamarre, Greenpeace "showed nothing, except that the security system worked perfectly."

– Parliamentary Inquiry – [19659002] Two days before the intrusion, the organization published an expert report questioning the resilience of the buildings housing the storage pools.

Being able to hold more fuel than the hearts of the reactors, these pools are not protected by reinforced enclosures, which exposes them more to the risk of external attacks, according to the NGO.

 Photo archive of the Cruas-Meysse nuclear power station (Ardèche) taken on October 10, 2017 (AFP / Archives - PHILIPPE DESMAZES)

Photo of the Cruas-Meysse nuclear power station (Ardèche) taken on October 10, 2017 (AFP / Archives – PHILIPPE DESMAZES)

A month and a half after the intrusion at Cattenom, 22 Greenpeace activists had entered the morning of November 28 in the Cruas-Meysse nuclear power plant (Ardèche).

A group had climbed a building "attached" to one of the reactors to "demonstrate its accessibility", according to the NGO. Four militants hung on a building and lit up smoke, according to videos broadcast by Greenpeace.

The Institute for Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN) invited EDF and the authorities to learn from this new intrusion

"It is difficult in France to have a debate on security issues, there was no other way than to return to the site," said Mr. Faro.

LREM deputies tabled a resolution on 21 December to set up a commission of inquiry "on the safety and security" of nuclear installations.

"These incursions helped to demonstrate that it was necessary for the national representation to seize issues of nuclear safety and security, "said these deputies, saying that the presence in France of 19 plants" imposes unrelenting vigilance. "

The action of Greenpeace in Cattenom" is not the al pha and omega, but will at least have allowed to generate a parliamentary inquiry and to hold EDF accountable on the issues of security and swimming pools, "said the defense lawyer.

A Siberian cold approaching, the homeless on the front line

Up to -10 ° C, felt -18 ° C: a cold from Siberia will win France Sunday afternoon, with temperatures far from winter records but endangering the most vulnerable, such as those without

"When you're out all day, the hardest thing is the cold … but you do not have a choice, so we're gritting our teeth," said Saadi Billel, an asylum seeker who had a place reserved for the night from Saturday to Sunday in a gymnasium of Strasbourg requisitioned by the prefecture.

Covers, food, hot drinks … "They gave us all that it takes here to hold the next days" he continues.

"I am happy and comforted to be able to enjoy a warm bed (…) otherwise we would be dying of cold outside," says Nasser, a 48-year-old Afghan, housed in one of the hangars open in Calais, where many migrants wait in the hope of moving to England.

Phenomenon known as "Moscow-Paris", intense cold air masses from Siberia will arrive on the East Sunday afternoon, before spreading to the rest of the country which should live between Monday and Wednesday the coldest days of this winter.

From Monday to Wednesday, Météo France thus provides for a minimum of -6 ° C to -10 ° C over a large eastern half (outside the Mediterranean, between 0 ° C and -4 ° C) and -2 ° C and -6 ° C on the west, unusual temperatures also late in the season.

– More Accommodations –

Due to a sustained wind, with gusts between 40 and 60 km / h, the temperatures felt s go down much lower: between -12 ° C and -18 ° C, or -25 ° C in the mountains.

The temperature felt, or "wind chill index", depends on the speed of the wind, which sweeps permanently the insulating layer of warm air that the body makes on the surface of the skin

This episode of cold pushed the authorities to trigger in 37 departments the plan "cold weather", with more than 3,100 temporary places additional accommodation for the homeless, including some 1,250 in Paris.

The winter was particularly difficult for the homeless in the capital with the flood of the Seine, the snow and finally this cold, notes Florence Pouyol, director General of the Social Action Center of the City of Paris.

"But we do not give up (…) we can not leave people on the street", she adds.

A 62-year-old man who lived in a cabin in the woods in the Yvelines was found dead Friday, December Partly due to the cold, according to the gendarmerie.

But the homeless are not the only population at risk. The health authorities advise to keep infants and old people inside.

– Frostbite and hypothermia –

For others, it is better to limit the physical efforts and cover well to avoid frostbite, hypothermia, and aggravation possible cardiovascular risks. And "contrary to popular belief, the consumption of alcohol does not warm," insists the Directorate General of Health, which also warns against carbon monoxide poisoning.

As for the Environment Agency and the control of energy (Ademe), it calls everyone to limit their electricity consumption, especially between 18h and 20h, stressing on Twitter that the production of electricity during the peaks of cold is "the most carbon", with the means of production "the most polluting and expensive".

EDF however indicated to have "no particular alert on the network", unlike last year.

 An SDF the 30 November 2017 in Paris where a Siberian cold is expected in the coming days (AFP / Archives - PHILIPPE LOPEZ)

An SDF on November 30, 2017 in Paris where a Siberian cold is expected in the coming days (AFP / Archives – PHILIPPE LOPEZ )

After a month of historically mild January, and a snowy beginning of February, this episode of cold, which would be banal in the heart of winter, is notable because of its date. France has not experienced such late cold since late February-early March 2005.

On the northern half, the "cold wave" could last until the end of the week, but the south should live a simple "cold shot", intense but shorter, with a warmth expected Wednesday, accompanied by snowfall that could go north Thursday.

The 2018 international agricultural fair marked by environmental issues

DATE. On March 6, 2010, Nicolas Sarkozy closed his visit of Salon de l'agriculture with a thunderous: "the environment, it starts to do well" . Given the tone of this 2018 version, the topics of conferences that will be held throughout the week and the positions that are expected, the projection of the former President of the Republic appears very dated. Eight years later, the agricultural sector is moving towards a more sustainable and environmentally friendly development

Of course, farmers are in the syringe. The spring 2017 controversy surrounding the carcinogenic effects of glyphosate, the industry's most widely used chemical herbicide, has once again shone the spotlight on the environmental consequences of high-dose pesticide and chemical fertilizer applications. The objectives of reduction of the plan Ecophyto, set up in 2008 following the Grenelle de l'environnement, were never achieved. On the contrary, the doses of phytosanitary have increased. The cost of depollution of these chemicals in water costs French taxpayers annually between 1 and 1.5 billion euros according to the Technical Institute of Organic Agriculture (Itab). The "Etats Généraux de l'Alimentation" which took place in the fall of 2017 helped to put the subject back on the map

A solution contract for a progress approach

BIOCONTROL. The National Federation of Farmers' Unions (FNSEA) made an important change of position in November. After refusing any debate on the subject, the majority union has published a "solution contract" promoting a "progress path for the protection of plants" which requires a halving of the use of pesticides by 2025. The FNSEA no longer bets on an uncompromising position, but is now arguing that future phytosanitary bans will only come into play when alternatives are available. And the union to commit that these substitutes like biocontrol are better known, distributed and advised to farmers. In mid-January, the Ministry of Agriculture launched its consultation on the use of pesticides . The conclusions should be released on May 9.

It's hardly saying that we should talk about it at this show. The " practical workshops" that take place in the "village of professionals" cover all topics related to sustainable agriculture, organic, bioeconomy and even global warming. Arvalis the technical institute for field crops, will present two innovations that reduce the use of pesticides and chemical fertilizers. INRA Tuesday, February 27, will devote a half-day to the diversity of agriculture, burying the same model of industrial agriculture. Irstea will present its latest innovations in favor of a reduction in the use of chemicals. Secretary of State for Ecological Transition Sébastien Lecornu will present measures to accelerate the production of biogas from agricultural waste

A dominant agricultural model stuck between consumers and industrialists

REVOLUTION. The agro-industrial model resulting from the "green revolution" of the post-war period is certainly still dominant. But he finds himself stuck between the general public, who is still as numerous at the agricultural show but to consume more and more organic products, and the professional sectors of product processing attentive to this demand. Thus, the main wheat merchant of France, Soufflet group, has just signed a new partnership agreement with INRA to achieve a " sustainable transformation of agricultural sectors, from the plate up to 'in the field, for the wheat, barley and pulses sectors ". Among the objectives: the reduction of the use of pesticides. Alongside traditional organic processors, international brands such as Danone and Évian are announcing the expansion of their organic range. The Organic Agency registered in 2012 12,238 companies processing organic products, up 15% compared to 2016.

According to the Agence bio, 73% of French people say they consume at less an organic product per month. They should therefore be numerous in the aisles of the Agricultural Show to buy these popular products that are offered by only 8.5% of farmers. A paradox that can not last very long.

A Siberian cold, before new snowfall

A wave of great cold coming from Siberia is expected from Sunday over much of France, which will certainly live on the coldest days of winter, before new snowfall in the middle of the week. [19659002] – The coldest days of winter –

After a month of historically mild January and a cold and snowy beginning of February, a moderate cold settled in the country for a few days, with temperatures of 3 to 7 degrees below normal season.

 Cold wave in France (AFP -)

Cold wave in France (AFP -)

But an even colder wave is expected from Sunday. Known as the "Moscow-Paris" phenomenon, intense cold air masses will spread from Siberia to all of Western Europe.

This Siberian air must arrive Sunday afternoon on the north-east quarter of France, before "rush on the country Monday and Tuesday," said Friday Emmanuel Demael, forecaster at Météo France.

Monday, Tuesday and Wednesday should be the coldest days of winter, with expected minimums of -5 ° C to -10 ° C (-2 ° C to -4 ° C in coastal areas), 7 to 11 degrees below normal. On the northern half, the cold could last at least until the end of next week.

– Temperatures 'felt' –

The sensation of cold will be increased by the wind.

 The effects of cold on the body (AFP - S. Ramis / E. Tônv)

The effects of cold on the body (AFP – S. Ramis / E. Tônv)

The body manufactures at the skin surface a small layer of warmer air. When there is wind, this insulating layer is continually swept away, and the body, which constantly tries to recreate it to restore equilibrium, cools.

This felt temperature or "wind chill index", which can differ from person to person, is calculated using an "empirical" mathematical formula combining real temperature and wind speed.

Next week, "at least 5 degrees of temperature displayed by the thermometers "to get the temperature felt," said Mr. Demael.

With an expected average wind of 20 to 30km / h and gusts between 50 to 70 km / h, the temperatures felt can go up to "-15 ° C to -17 ° C" in the lowlands, and at least -25 ° C in the mountains, he said

 How to protect yourself from the cold? (AFP - Vincent LEFAI, Jean Michel CORNU)

How to protect yourself from the cold? (AFP – Vincent LEFAI, Jean Michel CORNU)

This culture of the temperature felt is old in the United States or in Canada, but more recent in France where it served in the years 2000 to the development of the plans "big cold "intended to limit the health impacts of cold waves, especially on vulnerable populations.

The plan "cold weather" was also reactivated Wednesday in 29 departments, to open more places of accommodation for the homeless.

– Previous –

The cold waves the most important are usually between late December and mid-February, according to Météo France. But "early" or "late" episodes are possible.

France has not experienced such a notable late episode since late February-early March 2005, when cold records for a month of March had been broken. in several cities on March 1st (-15 ° C in Romorantin, -13 ° C in Poitiers, -12 ° C in Bergerac …). Météo France does not anticipate records next week.

Other remarkable episodes took place at the beginning of March 1971 with snowfall in the South-East and at the end of February 1948 (-20 ° C in Clermont-Ferrand and Saint- Etienne, -19 ° C in Lyon)

In February 1956, the coldest in history, and February 1986 (3rd coldest), temperatures remained very low until the end of the month.

– New snowfall –

From Wednesday, "a snow attack" is expected on the southern part of France, including coastal areas, from the southwest to the Côte d'Azur through the Massif Central and the Rhone Valley, according to M. Demaël

The snow will then go up Thursday to the north. "It still needs to be refined, but there is a risk of a significant snow episode in much of the country Thursday and Friday," said the forecaster.