NDDL: Zadists still undecided by the demands of the government

Four days before the deadline set by the government for them to decline their identities, the occupants of the ZAD of Notre-Dame-des-Landes toil Thursday to "deny the collective dimension" of their agricultural projects and remain undecided about the common response to the state.

The arrival on Wednesday in Nantes of the Minister of the Ecological Transition, Nicolas Hulot, long-time opponent of the airport project, did not change the line government, or that of the zadistes, braced on their will to manage collectively the lands they have defended.

Work meetings "pretty intense" were ongoing Thursday on the ZAD to release another proposal to put on the table, during a new meeting scheduled Friday with the prefect of the Pays de la Loire, Nicole Klein, and "out of this vise", according to one of the "spokespersons" of the occupants.

"We remain extremely suspicious because we have no assurance that behind there is not a will to continue to expel and do the sorting, "he adds.

The individual forms that the authorities are required to complete by Monday evening must include their name and the outline of their agricultural or para-agricultural project, a prerequisite for the eventual signature by the State of precarious leases.

"This form does not give us any guarantee as to what to do next, and if we do not fill it out, we necessarily take a risk.The visions are a little different, but whatever our decision, it will be strong, collective. and we will stick to it, "says Vincent.

Party involved in a collective project of market gardening, bee-keeping and raising of ewes, he deposited with two other occupants the statutes of an association, "before the beginning of expulsions," he says .

 Members of the occupying delegation of the ZAD of Notre-Dame-des-Landes at the end of their meeting with Nicolas Hulot and the prefect of Pays de la Loire, on April 18, 2018 in Nantes (AFP - JEAN- FRANCOIS MONIER)

Members of the occupying delegation of the ZAD of Notre-Dame-des-Landes at the end of their meeting with Nicolas Hulot and the prefect of the Pays de la Loire, on April 18, 2018 in Nantes (AFP – JEAN-FRANCOIS MONIER)

"The prefecture has our names, efforts have been made to find an arrangement that is suitable for the state (…) But we are being asked to yield all the way. in a negotiation, you have to be two to make concessions ", estimates Vincent.

-" Ready to take the risk "-

" The state obsessively talks to us about individual conventions and I could be well placed to answer it because I do gardening, but on the ZAD, the organization is collectiv e and it covers much more than the simple addition of small agricultural projects, "says Jean-Baptiste, enrolled for two years in the agricultural social mutuality (MSA).

"I am declared since May 15, 2016, the activity is legal, I am ready to take the risk of not being understood whereas I have a lot of things to preserve, because for us, the collective dimension it is essential, "insists the market gardener, installed at the eastern end of the ZAD, away from the area where nearly thirty squats were dismantled last week.

"It's very hard to be shriveled up to that point and so far, we have dignity and it will be difficult to give up our intimate convictions because to make society, we must advocate the collective, "insists Jean-Baptiste. "We would be made to think that because we do the collective, we advocate anonymity, which is not the case," he says.

Incomprise Wednesday by Nicolas Hulot, this indecision of zadistes was also difficult to understand for Sylvain Fresneau, fifth generation of peasants settled in Notre-Dame-des-Landes. "We still had two and a half months to turn around, and then another ten days, we need to move forward, it can not last for years this war," he says.

Sylvain Fresneau and the three other "historic" farmers who have always refused to sell their property to the airport concession holder must sign, "presumably Tuesday", a precarious occupation agreement and should obtain the surrender of their lands "before the end of the year," he says.

Pollution causes 7 million deaths a year worldwide

According to a report of Heal effects institute in the United States, the pollution of the air causes the deaths of 7 million people a year. Outdoor air pollution is the sixth leading cause of early death in the world in the face of alcohol, poor nutrition and lack of physical activity, all ages and gender. According to the report, in 2016, it caused the death of 4.3 million deaths worldwide. China and India account for more than half of the deaths due to this pollution.

A very unequal concentration

95% of the world's population exudes toxic air. The main cause of this deadly pollution is the emission of fine particles with a diameter of less than 2.5 micrometers, more commonly known as PM2.5. The concentration of fine particles in relation to the population exceeds the recommendations of WHO the World Organization of Health . It recommends not to exceed 10 μg / m 3 (micrograms per cubic meter of air). According to the report, nearly 60% of the world's population lives in areas where fine particles even exceed the WHO interim air quality target of 35 micrograms per cubic meter of air.

This particle concentration is very uneven. Thus, the continents most concerned are Africa and Asia. In Niger, for example, the concentration of fine particles exceeds 240 micrograms per cubic meter of air. In contrast, Australia, Canada, Estonia, Finland, Iceland, New Zealand and Sweden have a concentration of fine particles that does not exceed 8 micrograms per cubic meter of air. This makes them the countries least affected by external pollution. In France, the concentration of fine particles remains stable. Since 2005 it has been fixed at 12 micrograms.

In total, since 2010, the concentration of fine particles in the air relative to the global population has increased by 10%. And the effects of this fine particles on health are as multiple as alarming. Thus, they can be the cause of heart disease, cardiovascular accidents, lung cancer or respiratory accidents.

Indoor Air Pollution

The report also addresses the issue of indoor air pollution. In 2016, it caused the deaths of 2.6 million people. It is the eighth leading cause of death in the world. Indoor air pollution is due to the use of solid fuels such as manure or wood, to heat or cook. Thus, the researchers specify that " people living in a house using solid fuels can cope with a PM2.5 concentration twenty times higher than the WHO recommendation not to exceed 10 micrograms per meter air cube ".

But the report points out that the number of households using this type of fuel has dropped significantly, from 3.6 billion in 1990 to 2.4 billion today. This is due to the growing awareness of populations of the risks involved in their use.

Enzymes devouring plastics: Carbios claims to be more advanced than the Anglo-Saxons

French green chemistry company Carbios ruled Thursday that its technology for degrading plastics by enzymes was superior to that just unveiled by US and British scientists.

"The use of enzymes for degradation plastics is not a novelty, the French biotech Carbios is already developing this technology with performance well above those announced by these researchers, "said the company in a statement.

Carbios, based in Clermont-Ferrand, believes that its technology can degrade 97% PET (Polyethylene Terephthalate), one of the most used plastics, especially for bottles, in 24 hours.

Scientists at the British University of Portsmouth and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory of the US Department of Energy announced two days ago that a mutation of an enzyme, allowing a bacterium already known to Feeding PET made it even more effective.

Scientists noted that this discovery opened a new avenue for the destruction of plastics that clogged the environment.

Carbios believes it is much more advanced in industrialization of its process, since the group intends to "initiate the industrial demonstration phase" of its process "from 2019". Carbios then plans to set up a 10,000-ton unit, which will produce the first volumes of virgin PET from (its) technology by mid-2021.

Office, trade, canteen … The tri is hard to impose

Offices, businesses, communities, medical offices … For two years, many companies and administrations have to sort their waste for recycling. But at a time when the government wants to develop the circular economy, the law is barely enforced.

With six bins of different colors carefully aligned in the common kitchen, the engineering company Sinteo, based in Paris, has skipped it. His sixty employees separate paper, cans, plastic bottles, pens, corks, batteries, light bulbs, glass and even coffee grounds.

"This is the paradise of sorting", jokes one of them she, Laure, "happy" with this measure. This "proves that the company is engaged," she says, ensuring that employees play the game even if the sorting is sometimes approximate.

Since March 2016, a large number of companies and administrations must separate the papers , cartons, glasses, metals, plastics and wood from the rest of their bins. In detail, all those whose waste is collected by a private provider are concerned, as well as those whose garbage is collected by the community and generating more than 1,100 liters / week, the average production of about fifty people.

And since the beginning of 2018, any entity with more than 20 office workers has had to sort the paper.

But businesses and communities are outlawed. "On small companies (…), there are difficulties of implementation. (…) All have not made the necessary investments to satisfy the obligation of the sorting five flows", we recognize at Department of Ecological Transition

To practice sorting entails an additional cost and a greater logistics for companies, especially the most modest ones. From a certain volume, sorting "can be a source of income" because the collector pays for the harvested material, explains Mathieu Petithuguenin, managing director of recycling group Paprec.

But "the constraint not being very strong, without an inspector on the ground to check if it's set up, people do not feel the knife under the throat, "he says.

– 'Limit waste' –

"We must already set up a follow-up," says Muriel Olivier, vice-president of the National Federation of Environmental Remediation and Protection Companies (Fnade). Today, no one knows exactly how many companies and administrations are affected by the law and how it is applied.

The dustbins of professionals are nevertheless an important source for recycling. According to the French Environment and Energy Management Agency (ADEME), 20 million tonnes of their waste, out of nearly 64 million (excluding construction and agriculture) now incinerated or fled, could be easily sorted

The exact nature of this waste, which is not recycled, is not known. But paper is a big chunk, since every office worker consumes between 70 to 85 kg of paper a year, or three reams a month.

Food waste is another avenue of choice for the recovery of residues. The Ademe figures food waste at 21 kilos per person per year. Since 2016, establishments throwing more than 10 tonnes of bio-waste a year – a volume reached for example in a restaurant providing 150 meals per day – must harvest separately the food that remains on the plates.

Not everyone Still, things are moving, says Jerome Perrin, president of the company Love your waste, which collects bio-waste in restaurants, school canteens or even brewers in the Paris region. The start-up then draws city gas via anaerobic digestion. "There is a strong tendency to be less wasteful," he says.

This trend is expected to accelerate as by 2025, the amount of landfill waste will need to be halved compared to 2010 and Government plans sorting bio-waste for everyone, including individuals.

"By limiting the burial, the State will increase it" and make the recycling economically more interesting, hopes the director of the Regional Observatory waste Ile-de-France (Ordif), Helder de Oliveira.

In Australia, "catastrophic" hecatomb of corals in the Great Barrier

Australia's Great Barrier Reef, a world heritage gem of humanity, suffered a "catastrophic" hecatomb of its corals during a heated heat wave in 2016, threatening a greater diversity of marine life than hitherto estimated , warns study Thursday.

About 30% of the corals of the vast ensemble died during the heat wave between March and November 2016, the first episode of two consecutive years of bleaching.

Listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1981, the reef extends over approximately 348,000 square kilometers along the Australian coast and is the largest coral reef in the world.

Based on published survey by the scientific journal Nature, coral, which is home to other marine creatures, has been hard hit by rising water temperatures as a result of global warming.

Terry Hugues, co-author of study and director of the Center of Excellence for Coral Reef Studies at James Cook University told AFP that the most endangered species are branch corals such as coral reefs that provide hiding places for juvenile fish

The corals most likely to hold the shock are smooth, melon-shaped, the researcher continued. These corals do not have too much trouble building their skeleton but "they are not very useful for habitat," adds Hugues.

During the bleaching of 2016, corals from the northern part of the Great barrier suffered a wave of "catastrophic deaths," the study continues.

"This coral dieback has caused radical changes in species diversity in hundreds of individual reefs, where mature and diverse reef communities are turning into more degraded systems, where only a few enduring species survive," writes Andrew Baird, other scientist

Bleaching is a phenomenon of withering which results in a discoloration of corals. Under the pressure of factors such as warming, stressed corals expel the algae with which they have a symbiotic relationship, and give them color and energy.

The study calls for the protection of surviving corals, estimated at about one billion .

"These are the ones who will recharge and re-inhabit altered reefs," says Hugues, adding that water quality needs to be improved by reducing coastal pollution.

to limit global warming as in the Paris agreement are also crucial.

"We had four bleaching episodes (1998, 2002, 2016 and 2017) on the Great Barrier with an overall temperature rise of 1 ° C," says Hugues. "If we continue with our emissions as if nothing had happened, I do not think the Barrier will survive it."

Reefs cover less than 0.2% of the ocean surface but are home to 30% of animal species and marine plants, protecting them from predators and serving as their pantry. They contribute to coastal protection, human nutrition, and tourism.