Americans throw 150,000 tons of food a day (study)

Americans waste nearly 150,000 tons of food a day, the equivalent of more than 400 grams per person, a study said Wednesday, noting that fruits and vegetables were the most commonly discarded products.

This food that went to trash was grown on nearly 7% of US farmland, and thousands of billions of gallons of water were used to produce it, according to an article in the newspaper PLOS ONE. It also corresponds to 30% of the calories consumed daily by each American.

Fruit and vegetables account for 39% of all these products, followed by dairy products (17%), meat (14%) and dairy products. cereals (12%).

Among the products least likely to be discarded are crisps, oil, sweets and non-alcoholic beverages.

"Better diets are based on larger proportions of fruits and vegetables, which are wasted in greater quantities than other products, "says Meredith Niles, co-author of the study and assistant professor at the University of Vermont.

" Eating healthy is important and is a source of many benefits, but the more we follow these regimes, the more we need to be aware of food waste. "

The study, based on government figures and surveys on food waste between 2 007 and 2014, reports a "significant" impact on the environment and on farmers.

"This wastes were crops produced" with more than 350 million kg of pesticides and almost billion pounds of fertilizer "each year", according to the same source.

Among the possible solutions to this problem, the study proposes to teach consumers to better prepare and store fresh fruits and vegetables, and suggests that integrating efforts to prevent food waste from government programs.

"Food waste is a multi-layered issue," said lead author Zach Conrad of the Canadian Agricultural Research Service. North Dakota, which depends on the US Department of Agriculture.

"Addressing them holistically will become increasingly important in finding sustainable ways to meet the needs of a growing world population," he said. -t he added.

A cooling of water destroys corals off Japan

Unusually low water temperatures in Japan have destroyed some of the world's most northerly corals, an official from the Japanese Ministry of the Environment said Wednesday.

The ministry has been inspecting corals off the Pacific coast of Japan and found that a large portion had bleached, with 90 to 100% of each of the six areas observed being affected.

In four of these, the researchers reported from 85 to 95% of the whitened parts, said Yuto Takahashi, a guard of the marvelous natural spaces of the region attached to the ministry.

These damages seem the consequence of an unusual fall of the temperature of the water this year, in part due to a change of course of the Kuroshio current that conveys warm tropical waters to the north, he said.

"Very powerful cold winter fronts helped cool The gap made by the Kuroshio has also brought down the temperature of the sea "off Wakayama and other parts of the Pacific coast.

The mighty Kuroshio passing through the Pacific Northwest a, making an unusual deviation, brings up cold waters from the depths. Scientists have little knowledge of the reasons for these novelties of which they have observed six cases since 1965, the most recent last summer. In addition to their effect on temperature, they modify fishing zones and affect navigation, according to the Japanese Meteorological Agency.

The phenomenon recently observed in Japan "is different from the bleaching observed on the Great Barrier Reef or in Okinawa caused by a warming of the water, "says Takahashi.

The Japanese archipelago is home in its temperate zones, up to the Bay of Tokyo, the northernmost corals of the world, an aspect different from those further away from the poles. The magnificent reefs of an infinite variety of subtropical and tropical areas, such as the Great Barrier Reef off Australia, are whitening and dying as a result of global warming.

The regions closer to the poles, less hot but the climate is milder, could gradually accommodate the corals by the displacement generation after generation of their larvae.

The reefs, which cover less than 0.2% of the surface of the oceans, shelter 30% of the animal and vegetable species protecting them from predators and serving as their pantry. They contribute to the protection of the coasts, to the food of the men, to tourism.

NDDL: "the lines have not moved", says a delegation of opponents

"No line has moved" on the file of regularizations in Notre-Dame-des Landes, said Wednesday in Nantes a delegation of opponents, after a long meeting with the prefect of the Netherlands. de la Loire, Nicole Klein, chaired by the Minister for Ecological Transition Nicolas Hulot

"No line has moved, it is clear that the lines have not moved at all", the "requirements "the government remains the same, said at the exit of the prefecture Marcel Thébault, one of the four historic farmers NDDL and a member of the delegation.

According to him, the government has not proposed of "delay delay or anything".

"We had the idea to come see how things were moving to have grit to grind and seek serenity," he observed with regret.

Three months after the abandonment of the airport project, this crucial meeting, proposed by Ms. Klein and quickly accepted by the occupiers of the ZAD, was aimed at finding a way out of the conflict, on the tenth day of operations. gendarmerie on the site of 1,650 hectares, marked by clashes between opponents and police

The meeting lasted more than two hours. The delegation was composed of eight opponents of the former airport project, including three representatives of the ZAD.

The arrival of Nicolas Hulot was announced in the morning.

In the National Assembly, the Prime Minister Minister Édouard Philippe repeated Wednesday that "illegal occupants" who will not quickly regularize their situation "will leave the place" in Notre-Dame-des-Landes because "force must remain in the law."

Senators call for changes to the wolf plan

A Senate commission called for adjustments to the government's new wolf plan which, it says, does not sufficiently take into account the "despair of the pastoral world."

The wolf plan 2018-2023 published in February "comprises undeniable progress for the territories but remains far below the social, economic, cultural and psychological challenges that breeders and populations face, "said the Committee on Planning and Sustainable Development, in a report adopted Tuesday and broadcast on Wednesday.

"The situation is no longer tenable, neither for the farmers, nor for the populations, nor for the public finances.It is a vicious circle of sufferings, expenses and misunderstandings", commented the author of the report Cyril Pellevat (LR, Haute-Savoie), quoted in a statement.

Putting forward the "despair of the pastoral world" confronted with 12.000 ewes killed in 2017, the In particular, the senators call for the removal of one of the most contentious measures in the plan, which conditions the compensation of pastoralists for the introduction of protective measures for herds.

The commission also pleads for "alternative measures" (non-mutilated trapping, coarse shot rifle, etc.) with sampling shots in order to "teach wolves to be wary and stay away from men" and to European management of wolf populations.

Lastly, it calls for wolves killed in some areas of enhanced protection not to be counted in the harvest quotas.

The new wolf plan, which has failed to satisfy either the breeders or the defenders of the environment , provides for an annual culling ceiling based on scientific recommendations which estimate that no more than 10 to 12% of the population must be felled to ensure the viability of the species.

In 2018, an transitional, the initial ceiling is set at 40 wolves, but this number will be updated at the end of April once the precise figures of the population in the spring, said Tuesday before the same commission the prefect coordinator of the plan, Stéphane Bouillon. [19659002] Protected species, the wolf, which had disappeared from the country in the 1930s, returned to Italy from 1992. France has about 360 wolves (divided into 52 packs) and the government plan aims at a population of 500 specimens by 2023.

A "storm hunter" will track down from the ISS Red Sylphs and Blue Jets

cumulonimbus. We are still far from knowing everything about the electrical activity that characterizes thunderstorms. In addition to lightning and lightning discharges that we observe during a stormy episode, electromagnetic phenomena as complex as varied indeed occur in the upper atmosphere. Scientists call "red sylphs", "elves" or "blue jets" these "transient luminous phenomena" with various forms (cones, disks, rings …) that last only a few milliseconds, involve very important energies and sometimes extend over hundreds of kilometers. Observed for only twenty years, their origin remains mysterious. They are very difficult to study because they occur above storm clouds, cumulonimbus, and up to the base of the ionosphere for the highest. To understand the physical mechanisms that give rise to them and the role they play on the climate, the European Space Agency intends to examine them from the International Space Station thanks to the "ASIM" experiment ( Atmosphere-Space Interactions Monitor ) developed by Danish scientists

The ISS is ideally situated to study these luminous phenomena

On April 13, a robotic arm thus installed a 314-kilogram instrument outside the European Columbus module of the ISS. Orbiting nearly 400 kilometers from the Earth, it is ideally located to observe these transient luminous phenomena that occur between 50 and 100 kilometers above sea level (too high for a balloon or plane, and too low for the most satellites), mainly in the tropical and subtropical areas where the most violent storms occur. The space "thunderstorm" is equipped with ultraviolet and infrared cameras, photometers and gamma and x-ray detectors, which will measure many parameters and produce beautiful images for nearly two years.

© ESA