NDDL: Philippe and Collomb at the bedside of gendarmes, new deadline for the occupants

Édouard Philippe and Gérard Collomb arrived Friday afternoon for a surprise visit to the gendarmes near Notre-Dame-des-Landes where the illegal occupants were called to regularize their situation before April 23, a few hours later the launch of a gunshot operation of the gendarmes in the morning

The Prime Minister and the Minister of the Interior arrived shortly after 16:30 at the command post of the gendarmerie in Saint-Étienne-de-Montluc, at the south of the Zad, to "take stock of the evacuation operations that have taken place since Monday and greet the staff who were engaged" in this action, said Matignon.

Friday morning, the day after the announcement the end of deportation operations, the prefect of the Pays de la Loire Nicole Klein has reached out to the zadistes, including the expelled, inviting them to declare their plans by April 23 to initiate a "process of regulation

"They are simply asked at this stage to declare their name, to declare the agricultural project they wish to develop and to specify the parcels on which they wish to implement it so that the State (. ..) can instruct these requests, "said Nicole Klein emphasizing that" collective projects do not prevent individual projects. "

The prefect announced that she would receive a delegation of occupants" as soon as possible "

"What we are certain is that it will not be possible to think serenely as long as the Zad is targeted by this type of police actions," responded the Zadists in a statement.

Meanwhile the gendarmes will stay three weeks to a month with a triple objective: clear the plots, guarantee the free movement on the D281 and the D81 and prevent any illegal reoccupation, said the prefect.

The device urera "the time it will take, with the forces that will be needed. On the other hand, there will be no more expulsion, "said General Richard Lizurey, general director of the gendarmerie, in the morning.

-Bricharges reconstructed-

The morning of Friday was marked by new clashes on the Zad at dawn, with continuous pounding of grenades.

A gendarmerie operation was concentrated on the D81, one of the two main north-south roads crossing the ZAD , surmounted by fiery barricades Friday morning.It is on this axis that an ambush took place Thursday, according to the gendarmes, making 10 wounded in their ranks.

The gendarmes finally retired at the end of the morning. then returned and opponents have managed to go up several barricades on the D81, AFP found.

"The fight that some led is successful," said Friday at noon on RTL the Minister of ecological transition Nicolas Hulot in reference the abandonment of the airport project in January, "from there, it is necessary to calm down, to return in the right way and not to mix postures".

"I have only one message: We must know how to stop a fight that we won, "he reacted to AFP Friday afternoon.

The operation of expulsion of illegal occupants of the Zad began Monday, with 2,500 gendarmes, ushers and construction equipment, and 29 squats were destroyed in three days.

According to General Lizurey, about 250 opponents were present on the area earlier this week. But "last night we had 700 people in front of us, including extremely violent people, the ultra-left, some + black blocks + are present here.The only goal is to break, to break the police, to to hurt, to attack, to vandalize, "he regretted.

A total of four people were arrested Friday morning for participation in a gathering, violence on a police officer (with a hammer) or contempt and rebellion, according to the court of appeal of Rennes, specifying that another demonstrator arrested Thursday for possession of explosive device is still in custody.

Moreover, the court of emergency of Nantes rejected Friday the request for an occupier of the Zad who challenged the legality of his expulsion from the locality "Les 100 noms."

On January 17, when he put an end to the airport project at Notre-Dame-des-Landes, Édouard Philippe had promised to eradicate this "zone of lawlessness."

The tide gauge of Marseille, a historical monument at the bedside of the Mediterranean Sea

If the km 0 of the French maps is at the foot of Notre-Dame, in Paris, the altitude zero is, she, in Marseilles, in the entrails of the tide gauge, a historical monument become watchdog for the Big Blue, of which she has taken the pulse for over 130 years.

When Mont Blanc is measured in September at 4808.72 m altitude, 1 cm less than in 2015, it is compared to the average level of the Mediterranean Sea. A level officially defined on January 1, 1897 by the tide gauge of Marseilles, in the cove Calvo, along the Corniche.

"If the first measurement dates from February 3, 1885, it is only after 12 years of observation that was officially set this level zero, "says AFP Alain Coulomb, engineer at the IGN, the National Institute of Geography and Forestry Information.

 The tide gauge dating from the 19th century (AFP - BERTRAND LANGLOIS)

The tide gauge dating from the 19th century (AFP – BERTRAND LANGLOIS)

On January 1, 1897, a bronze rivet covered with platinum and iridium is sealed right next to the well where the copper float tide gauge "measures" the sea. At exactly 1,661 m above the water level. It is in relation to this "fundamental landmark" that are now calculated all the altitudes in the hexagon, with nearly 400,000 "terminals" already scattered across the country, and 1,500 new ones installed each year.

– Switzerland measured in Marseilles –

These measurements are made in France, but also in Switzerland, which, due to a lack of coastline, has been attached to Marseille to define its zero altitude. But not in Corsica, where the unevenness is calculated by the tide gauge of Ajaccio, nor in the departments or territories of overseas, which also have their own measures.

 The engineer Alain Coulomb shows the tide gauge (AFP - BERTRAND LANGLOIS)

The engineer Alain Coulomb shows the tide gauge (AFP – BERTRAND LANGLOIS)

Classified historical monument in 2002, with the villa which hosts it, inhabited by a guardian until 1988, the tide gauge of Marseille is unique. If it is one of the few float mechanical tide gauges still to exist, "it is the only one in the world to understand an integrator, a totalizing part allowing to read constantly the average level of the sea over a given period", The Foundation for Heritage, which has just launched a call for donations to renovate the building, with nearly 10,000 euros already collected.

Second since 1998 by a system of notched wheels in the field of high-precision watchmaking. a digital camera, which calculates the sea level via a radar wave, the old Marseilles tide gauge remains useful for climatologists and scientists, as a witness to climate change.

– Climate change –

 C is thanks to the tide gauge that we know for example that the Mediterranean rose by 16 cm since 1987 (AFP - BERTRAND LANGLOIS)

It is thanks to the tide gauge that we know for example that the Mediterranean has been mounted 16 cm since 1987 (AFP – BERTRAND LANGLOIS)

Only device to "measure" the Mediterranean for 130 years, it is thanks to the tide gauge that we know for example that the Mediterranean has risen 16 cm since 1987, and that it is 15 cm lower than the Atlantic Ocean … "It is an inestimable inheritance of Marseillaises and Marseillais, an exceptional tool and unique in the world", insists Renaud Muselier, the president of the region Paca, who has just pledged to finance the part of the 60,000 euros of necessary works that would not be covered by the call for donations.

If the astronomical tides, caused by the Moon, can vary the level of the Great Blue from 30 to 40 cm, the difference may exceed one meter with meteorological tides, due to highs or lows.

 The tide gauge calculation method (AFP - BERTRAND LANGLOIS)

The method of calculating the tide gauge (AFP – BERTRAND LANGLOIS) [1 9659006] But no question of changing the official zero of French maps, frozen since 1897. The interest of the tide gauge is mainly to measure the impact of climate on the sea level. This led to the observation that the rise in The Mediterranean has accelerated, and was 25% faster between 2005 and 2015 than in the previous decade.

"With climate change, there is no longer any question of the usefulness of these measures. and the utility of the Marseilles tide gauge ", explains Alain Coulomb.

The planet at the bedside of biodiversity in crisis

More than 750 experts from around the world gather for a week in Colombia to assess the "crisis" of biodiversity facing the Earth and advocate for solutions against the massive extinction of species, the first since the disappearance of dinosaurs

"Protecting biodiversity is as important as fighting climate change," said President Juan Emmanuel Santos, opening the sixth plenary session of the Intergovernmental Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES). 19659002] This forum brings together scientists and decision-makers from 116 of the 128 member states of IPBES until March 26 in Medellin, the second largest city in Colombia, the most bio-diverse country on the planet after Brazil.

" What happens to one happens to all, and if we are aware of it, we can be more responsible for protecting the environment and preserving peace. " Mr Santos, whose country is slowly emerging from more than half a century of armed conflict, is one of the world's biggest

"Today, the world is at a crossroads," said Sir Robert Watson, President of the United Nations. IPBES, lamenting that "the historical and current degradation and destruction of nature sabotages human well-being for the present and countless future generations."

According to IPBES, the Earth is facing a "massive extinction" of species, the first since the disappearance of dinosaurs about 65 million years ago, the sixth in 500 million years.

– Five reports, three years of work –

In Medellin, experts will assess the damage on the fauna, flora and soils of the Earth. Then will be revealed the outline of five bulky reports, as well as solutions to minimize the impact of human activities on the environment.

"By degrading biodiversity, we also reduce people's food, the clean water that we must drink and the forests that are our lungs, "warned the executive director of the United Nations Environment Program (UNEP), Erik Solheim, in a message relayed from Brasilia, where he participated in the World Water Forum.

To take stock of its situation, IPBES has divided the planet into four regions: Americas, Africa, Asia-Pacific and Europe-Central Asia. Each has been the subject of a thorough analysis and a report of 600 to 900 pages, which experts will study behind closed doors. Then the diagnosis will be made next Friday.

A second report will be extracted Monday, March 26 from a fifth report, the first of its kind on the state of the world's soils, more and more degraded by pollution, deforestation, Mining and unsustainable agricultural practices that impoverish them

"An immensely ambitious challenge awaits us this week," said Anne Larigauderie, executive secretary of IPBES.

For three years, some 600 Researchers have volunteered on these assessments, which synthesize data from about 10,000 scientific publications. The final result covers the entire Earth, apart from the international waters of the oceans and the Antarctic.

The IPBES delegates are in a country with more than 56,300 species of plants and animals.

Colombia, number 1 for the number of orchid species and birds (more than 1,920, 19% of the world), is crossed by three Andean Cordilleras, a complex topography that allowed the evolution of 311 different ecosystems.

– The challenge of deforestation –

The war, which claimed more than eight million lives between the dead, missing and internally displaced, has long converted into banned areas of huge areas of the country. thus paradoxically preserved.

But 1,200 species are threatened by deforestation and pollution, due in particular to extensive agriculture and livestock farming, illegal plantations of marijuana and coca, a raw material for cocaine, which has used to finance the conflict, and underground mining operations.

"We are still facing a huge challenge related to the control of deforestation", admitted in February the Colombian Minister of Environment and Development Luis Gilberto Murillo, reporting about 170,000 ha deforested in 2017.

The experts will also prepare summaries of about thirty pages, addressed to the leaders of the member countries of IPBES, in order to guide them in protecting biodiversity. The content will be negotiated "word by word."

Moving from transportation to education, through agriculture, these "summaries" are not binding. These are "suggestions," Larigauderie told AFP before the forum.

"Some countries may not be satisfied with what the report says about the state of their biodiversity," he said. warned

According to the World Wide Fund for Nature, by 2080, climate change could threaten between a quarter and half of the world's 33 richest biodiversity species.

In Strasbourg, volunteers at the bedside of homeless people cold

"This time, it really costs!" Relieved, Mohamed has just learned that he will be able to sleep warm. The Restos du coeur volunteers, marauding in Strasbourg, have reserved accommodation for him, while other homeless people will face out on the cold night.

This Monday evening in the Alsatian capital, the temperature is -7 ° , she feels like a scathing -12 °. In a few minutes, fingers and toes are numb.

"The concern is that we can not say + yes + to everyone, sometimes we have to make choices that are not simple," says Claude Hecht, retired , one of four volunteers to make this weekly visit to people on the street.

For this winter night, four places for men and two for women are reserved for those crossed by maraude Strasbourg

] Hot soup, steaming coffee, water bottles, hygiene products, but also an increased ration of gloves, hats, socks, fleeces, sleeping bags. Survival blankets complete the loading of the two vehicles of the organization of Coluche, which will cross the city.

– Social link –

"The soup and the coffee are an excuse to go to meet people Objective 1 is to be a social link with those who sleep outside, "says Gaëlle, 32, assistant manager of the maraude of Restos du coeur.

With the arrival of negative temperatures, the reports the emergency number for the homeless, number 115, is increasing. "Passers-by feel more concerned when it's cold like that," says Gaëlle, who, along the way, takes stock with the Samu social.

Barely part, the volunteer team already has three additional reports to add to his tour of several hours.

There are these newcomers, rushed to the streets for various reasons, and then there are the "usual", whom they visit every week. Like Mohamed, in the street for 22 months, or Ivan, a German-speaking gray-haired man, who does not want to leave his pile of blankets placed in the recess of a bank.

– "For a single night?" –

The outbreak of the Cold Weather Plan in the Bas-Rhin, as in 67 other departments, was translated in Strasbourg by the opening of a gymnasium to accommodate homeless people. One of the few places where dogs are accepted.

But Jonathan, 21 years old, four of them on the street, does not want to go with his two dogs. "I'm sick of stealing my stuff," he says between sips of coffee. That night, he will go squat an abandoned garage, he says.

"If that really does not go, call 115", insists Gaëlle smoothly.

A message repeated also to Marguerite, 58, who sleeps for years in his car in a parking lot of the stadium of Meinau, in the south of the city. She leaves her rear door ajar to prevent windows from freezing.

"We did not choose, it's been so long, it does not matter", says the blonde woman under her blanket.

Back in the center of Strasbourg. The marauder goes in search of a family that has been reported to them. Armed with a pair of Armenians and their two children, they head for the Restos du cœur van to swallow a bowl of soup in silence, after seeking a little respite from a nearby shopping center.

In France since almost four-year-old, their 11-year-old son and their 8-year-old daughter go to school by day, but at night, it's been six months since they've had a place to sleep.

Tonight they'll finally be able to sleeping in two hotel rooms reserved for them

"It's for one night?" asks the mother, her eyes exhausted. "Unfortunately, yes," Gaëlle replied. "Tomorrow, we'll have to call back the 115."