The worrying state of biodiversity in figures

As the Intergovernmental Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES) prepares to reveal the state of the world's flora and fauna, this is what we know so far: [19659002] – Two species of vertebrates have disappeared each year for an average of a century

– The Earth is facing a "massive extinction", the first since the disappearance of dinosaurs about 65 million years ago, the sixth in 500 million years

– About 41% of amphibians and more than a quarter of mammals are threatened with extinction

– Nearly half of coral reefs have disappeared in the last 30 years [19659002] – The populations of 3,706 species of fish, birds, mammals, amphibians and reptiles have decreased by 60% in just 40 years from 1970

– 25,821 of the 91,523 species listed on the "Red List" established by the International Union for nature conservation (IUCN) and updated in 2017, were classified as "threatened"

– Of this total, 5,583 were "severely" endangered, 8,455 "endangered" and 11,783 "vulnerable"

– – The number of African elephants has dropped by about 111,000 between 2006 and 2016, to 415,000 specimens

– Our planet has about 8.7 million species of plants and animals according to estimates, of which 86% of terrestrial species and 91% of marine species still to be discovered

– Of those that are known and listed, 1,204 mammal species, 1,469 birds, 1,215 reptiles, 2,100 amphibians and 2,386 fish are threatened [19659002] – 1.414 insect species, 2.187 molluscs, 732 crustaceans, 237 corals, 12.505 plants, 33 mushrooms and six brown algae are also under threat

– Economic losses from deforestation and forest degradation account for up to 3.6 trillion Euro ($ 4.5 trillion)

– A conference of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) from the Rio Earth Summit in 1992, developed in Nagoya in 2010 Japan a 20-point program to halt biodiversity loss by 2020

– These "Aichi Targets" aim, among other things, to halve the rate of habitat loss, expand conservation areas terrestrial and aquatic, preventing the extinction of threatened species and restoring at least 15% of degraded ecosystems

Sources: WWF Living Planet Report, IUCN Red List, PLoS Biology scientific journal, Proceedings of the IUCN Red List National Academy of Sciences, CBD, Economics and Ecosystems Economics Task Force (TEEB)

IPBES, guardian angel of biodiversity

The Intergovernmental Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES), which has prepared key reports for the protection of species, is an independent body created in 2012 by some 100 UN member states. [19659002] – Its task is to gather all scientific knowledge on the state of biodiversity in order to evaluate trends, future developments and advise governments on the measures to be taken.

– To date, IPBES has 128 member states. Its secretariat is based in Bonn, Germany.

– This is not a UN agency, but it was created on the model of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) of the UN, which has alerted the world to the dangers of global warming and paved the way for the 2015 Paris Agreement.

– IPBES has published its first analysis, on the dangers threatening bees, in 2016.

– Its next four reports on the state of biodiversity in four regions of the world – America, Africa, Asia-Pacific, Europe-Central Asia – are to be published on March 23 and a fifth on state of the planet's soils on March 26.

– Each report required three years of work, at a cost of about 806,000 euros (about one billion dollars) each.

– The IPBES is financed by a fund on the basis of voluntary contributions from its States. The highest, eight million dollars, was paid by Norway in 2014, told AFP its executive secretary, Anne Larigauderie

– The hundreds of scientists working on each report are volunteers. "We estimated that the time they invest and donate to IPBES has been between $ 5 and $ 10 million in 2017," says Larigauderie.

– Experts do not do their own research, but collect data from thousands of scientific publications and condense them into syntheses for governments, which must first approve their contents.

– This plate -form was at the center of a controversy when it appeared that two of the authors of the 2016 pollination report were working for agrochemical groups Bayer and Syngenta, which produce pesticides suspected of being involved in the increase. mysterious of bee mortality. IPBES assured that there was no conflict of interest as multiple points of view are necessary to establish a balanced analysis.

The planet at the bedside of biodiversity in crisis

More than 750 experts from around the world gather for a week in Colombia to assess the "crisis" of biodiversity facing the Earth and advocate for solutions against the massive extinction of species, the first since the disappearance of dinosaurs

"Protecting biodiversity is as important as fighting climate change," said President Juan Emmanuel Santos, opening the sixth plenary session of the Intergovernmental Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES). 19659002] This forum brings together scientists and decision-makers from 116 of the 128 member states of IPBES until March 26 in Medellin, the second largest city in Colombia, the most bio-diverse country on the planet after Brazil.

" What happens to one happens to all, and if we are aware of it, we can be more responsible for protecting the environment and preserving peace. " Mr Santos, whose country is slowly emerging from more than half a century of armed conflict, is one of the world's biggest

"Today, the world is at a crossroads," said Sir Robert Watson, President of the United Nations. IPBES, lamenting that "the historical and current degradation and destruction of nature sabotages human well-being for the present and countless future generations."

According to IPBES, the Earth is facing a "massive extinction" of species, the first since the disappearance of dinosaurs about 65 million years ago, the sixth in 500 million years.

– Five reports, three years of work –

In Medellin, experts will assess the damage on the fauna, flora and soils of the Earth. Then will be revealed the outline of five bulky reports, as well as solutions to minimize the impact of human activities on the environment.

"By degrading biodiversity, we also reduce people's food, the clean water that we must drink and the forests that are our lungs, "warned the executive director of the United Nations Environment Program (UNEP), Erik Solheim, in a message relayed from Brasilia, where he participated in the World Water Forum.

To take stock of its situation, IPBES has divided the planet into four regions: Americas, Africa, Asia-Pacific and Europe-Central Asia. Each has been the subject of a thorough analysis and a report of 600 to 900 pages, which experts will study behind closed doors. Then the diagnosis will be made next Friday.

A second report will be extracted Monday, March 26 from a fifth report, the first of its kind on the state of the world's soils, more and more degraded by pollution, deforestation, Mining and unsustainable agricultural practices that impoverish them

"An immensely ambitious challenge awaits us this week," said Anne Larigauderie, executive secretary of IPBES.

For three years, some 600 Researchers have volunteered on these assessments, which synthesize data from about 10,000 scientific publications. The final result covers the entire Earth, apart from the international waters of the oceans and the Antarctic.

The IPBES delegates are in a country with more than 56,300 species of plants and animals.

Colombia, number 1 for the number of orchid species and birds (more than 1,920, 19% of the world), is crossed by three Andean Cordilleras, a complex topography that allowed the evolution of 311 different ecosystems.

– The challenge of deforestation –

The war, which claimed more than eight million lives between the dead, missing and internally displaced, has long converted into banned areas of huge areas of the country. thus paradoxically preserved.

But 1,200 species are threatened by deforestation and pollution, due in particular to extensive agriculture and livestock farming, illegal plantations of marijuana and coca, a raw material for cocaine, which has used to finance the conflict, and underground mining operations.

"We are still facing a huge challenge related to the control of deforestation", admitted in February the Colombian Minister of Environment and Development Luis Gilberto Murillo, reporting about 170,000 ha deforested in 2017.

The experts will also prepare summaries of about thirty pages, addressed to the leaders of the member countries of IPBES, in order to guide them in protecting biodiversity. The content will be negotiated "word by word."

Moving from transportation to education, through agriculture, these "summaries" are not binding. These are "suggestions," Larigauderie told AFP before the forum.

"Some countries may not be satisfied with what the report says about the state of their biodiversity," he said. warned

According to the World Wide Fund for Nature, by 2080, climate change could threaten between a quarter and half of the world's 33 richest biodiversity species.

A Biodiversity Plan 2018-2024 is announced for March by the City of Paris

A new Plan Biodiversity 2018-2024 to preserve the fauna and flora of the French capital announced by the Mayor of Paris will be born in March. The plan will be debated in Paris Council in mid-March after extensive consultation of associations and elected officials. It will be divided into 30 actions aimed at " making Paris an exemplary city " in terms of preservation and development of biodiversity as well as sensitization of inhabitants. Among the major objectives: to increase the share of "permeable surfaces" outside buildings in the city from 30 to 50%, in this case to make the pavement and pavement surface, now covered with bitumen, appear again. Fifteen other concrete initiatives will be announced in March. The mayor of Paris has " a moral obligation, in terms of climate, to prevent biodiversity " said in front of the press Pénélope Komitès, Deputy Green Spaces of the Mayor PS Paris Anne Hidalgo .

Gaining biodiversity

The two large woods, the canals, embankments and cemeteries give the city of Paris a reservoir of biodiversity covering 16% of the territory. However, the city faces the scarcity of urban species, such as the emblematic sparrow which three out of four individuals have disappeared in 13 years, according to P. Komitès In addition to some gardens or wetlands creations, esplanade Saint-Louis in front of the Château de Vincennes in the 12th arrondissement should see its central part converted into a "meadow" (now converted into an unused parking lot).

In addition, l a mayor of Paris has launched a call for projects February 28 for the protection and development of biodiversity, open until March 23, 2018.

Paris launches a vast plan for biodiversity

A festival of biodiversity, the reconquest of spaces now covered with bitumen and adapted urban planning regulations are among the actions that will launch Paris in a Biodiversity Plan 2018-2024 to preserve and diversify the fauna and the flora in the capital, announced the city on Wednesday.

The city has a "moral obligation, in terms of climate issues, to preserve biodiversity", also very officially named Honorary Citizen of the City on September 26, 2016 Pénélope Komités, deputy mayor of Paris PS Mayor Anne Hidalgo, told the press.

The plan, which will be debated in the Paris Council in mid-March after a wide consultation of associations and organizations. elected, is divided into 30 actions with the aim of "making Paris an exemplary city" to preserve and develop biodiversity and educate the inhabitants.

Paris, a dense and mineral city, nevertheless benefits from a to see biodiversity on 16% of its territory, with its two large woods, its canals, embankments, cemeteries, rich in numerous animal and plant species.

However, it faces, as on a world scale, the rarefaction of 'species like the emblematic sparrow of which three out of four individuals have disappeared in 13 years, according to Mrs Komitès

The plan includes some major objectives such as increasing the proportion of "permeable surfaces" outside buildings in the city from 30% to 50% , in this case to revive the earth sidewalks, pavements, etc., now covered with bitumen.

"We will strengthen the green and blue frames", ecological corridors of plants and water that allow species to circulate and expand, added the assistant who also evokes planning regulations to allow the nesting of birds or garden labeling by the League of Bird Protection (LPO).

Fifteen initiative Concretions will be announced in March.

In addition to some creations of gardens or wetlands, the Esplanade Saint-Louis in front of the Château de Vincennes in the XIIth arrondissement, today a kind of unused parking, should see its central part arranged in "meadow".

A "Make Paris of biodiversity" will take place from April 22 to June 10 with animations, visits, educational workshops, etc.