Wednesday, March 21: it's the International Day of Forests

What if we took a little height on the occasion of the International Day of Forests, which takes place every year on March 21st? Planet, a company specializing in satellite imagery, compiled a video sequence of the 7134 images of forests it took in a single day. Thanks to a fleet of no less than 200 mini-satellites, the company has been photographing oceans, forests and various infrastructures from the atmosphere. These tools are very practical, for example, for evaluating forest area and attesting to deforestation phenomena

Compilation of 7134 images of forests covering 4 continents, captured in a single day. © Planet Labs 2018

For example, minisatellites captured these images near the Bolivian Andes. The disappearance of nearly 2,000 hectares of forest in just six months, in favor of sugar cane fields. The authors indicate that according to Mongabay, a website specializing in environmental science, it was an operation to prepare the extension of the San Buenaventura sugar refinery.

The images are striking, even for a phenomenon that has existed for decades. In its report entitled " Global Assessment of Forest Resources ", the United Nations measured between 2000 and 2010 an average annual deforestation of 13 million hectares. This represents the area of ​​Nicaragua! This frantic pace had already softened: in the 1990s, deforestation averaged 16 million hectares razed per year. The United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) assessed global forest resources in 2015 at 3,999 million hectares. That is 30.6% of the planet's territory

FAO has conducted forest resource assessments since 1948. One might be tempted to compare the figures for each. This is not possible. First of all because the methodology has changed in 70 years, and thankfully. Institutional, financial and technical resources have evolved to better quantify the areas and types of forest. Then the very term "forest" has changed in seven decades. What is a forest, according to the FAO?

The forest, definitions

1948. " Earth with vegetative associations dominated by trees of any size, able to produce wood or other products, to influence the climate or the water regime."

1958 Same definition to a detail added: "lands providing shelter for livestock and wildlife."

1980. "All types of vegetation where trees cover more than 10% of the soil."

1990. Developed countries: "Ecological systems with a minimum crown cover of 10%, generally associated with wild flora, fauna and natural soil conditions, and not subject to agronomic practices. 100 hectares are considered. "
Developing countries: "Crown-planted land of more than about 20% of the area; […] with trees more than 7 meters high and capable of producing wood […]." [19659005] 2005 "Land covering more than 0.5 hectares with trees greater than 5 meters and a cover of more than 10% of the canopy […]and does not include land that is predominantly agricultural or urban."

In 70 years, our relationship with the forest has changed, semantics with. From a purely productivist definition, the forest becomes an ecosystem. It is gradually understood that it contains a fragile biodiversity to defend. The next FAO assessment will take place in 2020. While it is good to take a step back to evaluate a phenomenon, it will need to be looked after very closely.

Air pollution: it's not good to breathe at the foot of Mont Blanc

In Chamonix, they are proudly called "mules". These electric mini-buses crisscross the streets of the small alpine resort of nearly 10,000 inhabitants. They are part of the measures put in place for six years to try to reduce the use of polluting transport whose emissions literally choke more than 160,000 people in the Arve Valley that connects Chamonix to Contamine-sur-Arve (Haute-Savoie ). Las! it is still not good to live at the foot of Mont Blanc, where the atmosphere exceeds safety standards more than 35 days a year. Like Paris, Lyon or Marseille, this tourist region fails to meet the requirements of European directives. Worse: according to the epidemiological survey published in September 2017 by Public Health of France, exposure to air pollution in the 41 municipalities concerned is the direct cause of 8% of mortality in the valley, or 85 deaths per year . The longevity of an inhabitant now 30 years old will be – if nothing is done – amputated by nine months because of this permanent inhalation of fine particles and oxides of nitrogen. In total, the inhabitants of Arve today lose nearly 1,800 years of existence. "This study appears more alarming than we thought" is outraged Anne Lassman-Trappier, president of the local association Inspire 74 who now places all his hopes in a new Plan of protection of the atmosphere (PPA), more draconian that should be made public in mid-2018.

These poor results sign the failure of the first PPA developed in 2012 to try to fight against pollution peaks. In particular: the intense road traffic, with more than 600,000 trucks leaving each year to attack the Mont Blanc tunnel and responsible for 70% of nitrogen oxide emissions. And wood burning in 18,000 open fireplaces, responsible for 57% of fine particle emissions in winter. Conditions aggravated by the geographical situation of the valley which undergoes during a period of anticyclonic episodes a phenomenon of "thermal inversion"

While the upper layers of the atmosphere are warmed by the sun, the lowest ones remain at a lower temperature, blocking the polluting emissions on the ground. "Not only is the Arve Valley concealed, but also the thermal inversion layer is 50 meters above the ground when it is 300 meters above a city like Paris " , says Jean-Luc Jaffrezo, deputy director of the Institute of Environmental Geosciences (IGE, Grenoble).

But despite the health emergency, "the first PPA was made in a certain general skepticism "remembers Alain Nahmias, president of the Association for the respect of the Mont-Blanc site (ARSMB). "The industrialists, the motor carriers and the elected officials sent the ball back to them, and the public doubted that its heating practices and the use of the personal car could be responsible for the situation." [19659002] Thus, despite incentives in the form of subsidies of up to 2,000 euros, only 2,200 households have opted for a powerful insert against the 3200 expected … And the inhabitants of the valley are quick to incriminate second homes. "It's cultural, people think that the mountain in winter is the fire!" regrets Alain Nahmias. As for heavy goods vehicle traffic, it has progressed to 5,000 trucks a day since the recent economic recovery and, due to a lack of budget, the four communities of communes in the valley have not been able to set up an adequate bus line. 19659002] On the industrial side, the commune of Passy, ​​the black spot of the Arve, does not know how it can regulate the emissions of the household garbage incinerator on its territory, nor those of a factory which – paradoxically – manufactures carbon parts for car batteries … electric! These manufacturers argue, certainly, that they comply with emission standards … but their contributions (12 tons per year for the carbon plant) worsen the situation.

In addition to Putin's Close People, 12 Russian WN It's Indefinitely Campuri US Election

Washington DC
There are 13 Russian nationals charged with interfering with the US presidential election. One of them is known as a Russian businessman named Yevgeniy Viktorovich Prigozhin known as the close man of Russian President Vladimir Putin.

In the indictment drafted by Robert Mueller's special prosecutor, it was mentioned that Prigozhin used some of his companies to fund the 2016 presidential intervention operation. Prigozhin has been dubbed the 'Putin chef' by Russian media.

As quoted from the published indictment document CNN Saturday (17/2/2017), there are 13 individuals and three Russian companies who are accused in allegedly interfering in the political process and the US presidential election. The three companies are all located in Russia, namely Internet Research Agency (IRA), Concord Management and Consulting and Concord Catering .

Whereas 13 indicted individuals consisting of Yevgeniy Viktorovich Prigozhin, Mikhail Ivanovich Bystrov, Mikhail Leonidovich Burchik aka Mikhail Abramov, Aleksandra Yuryevna Krylova, Anna Vladislavovna Bogacheva, Sergey Pavlovich Polozov, Maria Anatolyevna Bovda aka Maria Anatolyevna Belyaeva, Robert Sergeyevich Bovda, Dzheykhun Nasimi Ogly Aslanov aka Jayhoon Aslanov aka Jay Aslanov, Vadim Vladimirovich Podkopaev, Gleb Igorevich Vasilchenko, Irina Viktorovna Kaverzina and Vladimir Venkov.

The indictment referred to the IRA as a Russian organization involved in election intervention and political process operations. Concord Management and Consulting Concord Catering is a company owned by Prigozhin.

"From or about 2014 up to now, defendants know and deliberately conspire with each other to deceive the United States by disrupting, obstructing and avoiding the functioning of government law through deception and lies for the purpose of interfering in political and election processes of the US, including presidential election 2016, "the indictment read.

 Yevgeniy Viktorovich Prigozhin (left) with Vladimir Putin in photos of 2011 Yevgeniy Viktorovich Prigozhin (left) with Vladimir Putin in photos of 2011 Photo: REUTERS / Misha Japaridze / Pool / File Photo

A total of 12 other names , in addition to Prigozhin, is called working for the IRA. Some are serving as IRA's General Director, IRA Executive Director, to IRA analysis and staff in charge of posting, monitoring and updating social media content on IRA-controlled accounts. Through this account, IRA teams disguised themselves as US citizens or organizations, after stealing their identities.

Various IRA activities, one of which interfere with the US presidential election, was financed by a company owned by Prigozhin. It was mentioned in the indictment that around September 2016, the IRA's monthly budget included for a US election intervention operation exceeding 73 million rubles of Russia, or equivalent to Rp 17.6 billion.

According to the indictment, 13 defendants were each charged with a conspiracy commit fraud against US. Then three defendants among them, including the IRA, were charged with conspiring to wire fraud and bank fraud. Five defendants, including the IRA, are also charged with identity theft of US citizens.

Wire fraud is a financial fraud using telecommunications or information technology, while bank fraud is a fraud by means of (19459008) Prigozhin has been under US economic sanctions since December 2016, for 'financially helping' senior Russian officials and engaging in 'massive business deals' with the Ministry of Defense Russia. He has a catering company that is widely used in events at the Kremlin. He has denied linked to the IRA.

"Americans are very easily influenced, they see what they want to see, I have great respect for them I am not angry because I am on the list (indictment) If they want to see the devil, let them see it , "he said to the Russian news agency, RIA Novosti .

(nvc / rna)

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Shoot down Israeli F-16 Jet Fighter, It's Syria

The Syrian Air Defense has succeeded in stopping the Israeli offensive into a military base in the country today. According to Syrian state media, anti-aircraft missiles are fired on more than one Israeli warplane.

This was reported by Syrian media after the Israeli military declared that a fighter jet had crashed after being fired upon launching attacks against "Iranian targets "in Syria. The Israeli army said the attack was carried out after it intercepted an unmanned drone believed to be Iranian.

"In the early hours of the morning, the Zionist enemies committed a new aggression against one of our military bases in the center of the country," Syria, SANA as reported AFP, Saturday (10/2/2018).

"Our air defenses drive him out and hit more than one plane," SANA added.

Earlier, Israeli army spokesman Lieutenant Colonel Jonathan Conricus said the two F-16 fighter jet pilots had crashed, surviving the incident.

"The Israeli military is targeting the Iranian control system in Syria that sends UAVs (unmanned aerial vehicles) into Israeli airspace," Lieutenant Colonel Jonathan Conricus said, adding that the Syrian Air Force then fired anti-aircraft missiles into a jet fighter F-16 in Israel.

"Iran is responsible for this severe violation of Israeli sovereignty," Conricus said as reported by news agency AFP, Saturday (10/2/2018).

In a separate statement Israeli military said, Israeli forces identified an "Iranian UAV" launched from Syria and intercepted it in Israeli airspace with a fighter. The F-16 fighter plane crashed in the valley of Jezreel, in northern Israel.

"During the attack, some anti-aircraft missiles were fired into IAF (Israeli Air Force) aircraft," the Israeli military statement said.

Israel has waged dozens of attacks air to Syrian armed forces and allies since the civil war broke out in the country in 2011. Iran and Russia are major military supporters for the Syrian government.

(ita / ita)

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Reveal the FBI Nonconformity Secret Memo, Trump: It's a Disgrace!

Washington DC
President of the United States Donald Trump is furious with the content of secret memos that are considered to reveal the impartiality of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) as law enforcement. Trump calls the content of the secret memo a disgrace.

"I think it's a disgrace.With what's going on in this country, I think it's a disgrace," Trump said as he announced his decision to release this secret memo to the public, as reported by AFP and Reuters Saturday (3/2/2018).

"A lot of people should be ashamed of themselves and worse than that," he stressed.

Trump finally released a secret memo that cornered the FBI and the US Justice Department on Friday (2/2) local time. He ignored the stern warning from FBI Director Christopher Wray and the US Department of Justice that the release of the secret memo has the potential to harm the state's secret information, which the public should not know.

The four-page secret memo is supposed to show that an investigation into alleged collusion of Trump's campaign team with Russia during the 2016 presidential election is still ongoing, a product of political bias against Trump within the FBI and US Justice Department.

The memo was composed by Devin Nunes as Chairman of the US House Intelligence Commission for the Republican Party. In his comments, Nunes called the memo a "serious violation of public trust". "The American people have a right to know when officials at important institutions are abusing their authority for political purposes," he said.

The secret memo containing highly confidential and sensitive information was released to the public without censorship. The memo's contents focus on FBI surveillance of a member of the Trump campaign team named Carter Page. Page has been the focus of the FBI's attention since 2013, when he met a number of Russians working for the Russian Foreign Intelligence Service in New York.

Mentioned the memo that a document named 'Russian file' containing an unproven charge against Trump, contributed vitally to the issuance of a court order to lurk the Page. The 'Russian file' is composed by former British intelligence agent Christopher Steele, with funds financed partly from Hillary Clinton's campaign fund, a rival of Trump during past presidential elections.

FBI's electronic e-checking on Page began in October 2016. A number of senior FBI and US Department of Justice officials, including Deputy Attorney General Rod Rosenstein, are said to approve the reconnaissance.

The disclosure of this memo is deemed to indicate abuse of authority and non- neutral from the FBI which is the top law enforcement agency in the US. The FBI with the US Justice Department has been accused of abusing the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act 'program for political purposes.

(nvc / fjp)

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