Pollution causes 7 million deaths a year worldwide

According to a report of Heal effects institute in the United States, the pollution of the air causes the deaths of 7 million people a year. Outdoor air pollution is the sixth leading cause of early death in the world in the face of alcohol, poor nutrition and lack of physical activity, all ages and gender. According to the report, in 2016, it caused the death of 4.3 million deaths worldwide. China and India account for more than half of the deaths due to this pollution.

A very unequal concentration

95% of the world's population exudes toxic air. The main cause of this deadly pollution is the emission of fine particles with a diameter of less than 2.5 micrometers, more commonly known as PM2.5. The concentration of fine particles in relation to the population exceeds the recommendations of WHO the World Organization of Health . It recommends not to exceed 10 μg / m 3 (micrograms per cubic meter of air). According to the report, nearly 60% of the world's population lives in areas where fine particles even exceed the WHO interim air quality target of 35 micrograms per cubic meter of air.

This particle concentration is very uneven. Thus, the continents most concerned are Africa and Asia. In Niger, for example, the concentration of fine particles exceeds 240 micrograms per cubic meter of air. In contrast, Australia, Canada, Estonia, Finland, Iceland, New Zealand and Sweden have a concentration of fine particles that does not exceed 8 micrograms per cubic meter of air. This makes them the countries least affected by external pollution. In France, the concentration of fine particles remains stable. Since 2005 it has been fixed at 12 micrograms.

In total, since 2010, the concentration of fine particles in the air relative to the global population has increased by 10%. And the effects of this fine particles on health are as multiple as alarming. Thus, they can be the cause of heart disease, cardiovascular accidents, lung cancer or respiratory accidents.

Indoor Air Pollution

The report also addresses the issue of indoor air pollution. In 2016, it caused the deaths of 2.6 million people. It is the eighth leading cause of death in the world. Indoor air pollution is due to the use of solid fuels such as manure or wood, to heat or cook. Thus, the researchers specify that " people living in a house using solid fuels can cope with a PM2.5 concentration twenty times higher than the WHO recommendation not to exceed 10 micrograms per meter air cube ".

But the report points out that the number of households using this type of fuel has dropped significantly, from 3.6 billion in 1990 to 2.4 billion today. This is due to the growing awareness of populations of the risks involved in their use.

NDDL: abandonment of the project could cost the state up to 600 million euros, according to Woerth

The abandonment of the Notre-Dame-des-Landes airport project (NDDL) will cause a loss for the public finances of 200 to 600 million euros, according to an estimate of the president (LR) of the Finance Committee of the National Assembly, Eric Woerth, Wednesday.

This estimate also includes the redevelopment of Nantes-Atlantique airport, said the deputy Republicans of the Oise during the presentation to the Commission of the the financial consequences of the abandonment of this controversial project.

On the contrary, the continuation of the project would have allowed a net profit of 180 million euros over the duration of the concession, says moreover

These figures are based on the analysis of financial documents submitted by the state administration and by the local and regional authorities involved in the project, in the framework of a parliamentary control.

The government announced mid-January the abandonment of the proposed transfer of Nantes-Atlantiques airport to Notre-Dame-des-Landes, recommending instead to adapt to the evolution of the traffic the existing airports of Nantes, Rennes and Brest.

The former Minister of the Budget also judged that the possible compensation of the concessionaire, the company Airports of the Great West (AGO), charged in particular to realize the new airport was a "considerable financial risk" but should be negotiated.

The government could pay him a maximum of 500 million euros, he said. But "when the compensation (…) will be greater than 100 or 120 million euros, or between 20 to 30% of the maximum estimates, the cost to the State of the abandonment of Notre-Dame-des -Landes will be superior to that of the continuation of the project ", underlined Éric Woerth.

Concerning the modernization of the current airport of Nantes-Atlantique, which foresees in particular its enlargement, the invoice could reach 500 million euros according to a government mediation mission. A sum which seems "underestimated", the member worried.

"It will be necessary to take into account the additional costs related to the closing of the airport during the works on the track, during several weeks", he argued

"Especially the lengthening of the runway and the extension of the terminal require land acquisitions and work, subject to significant environmental constraints", continued Mr. Woerth. [19659002AttheendofJanuaryMrWoerthafteracheckonthespotandonthespotattheDGAChadestimatedthatthegovernmenthadabandonedtheairportproject"withoutpriormeasurementofthefinancialrisk"

The "critical" state of the soil threatens 50 million people

Soils are in critical condition. This is the alarming finding published in a extensive study on Monday, March 26, 2018, at the end of the 6th plenary session of the Intergovernmental Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES), which had held from 17 to 24 March 2018 in Colombia, in Medellín. This report, which required 3 years of work, involved no less than 3,000 scientists, governments, indigenous peoples and local populations. Their observations, data and testimonies were analyzed by about a hundred researchers from 45 different countries, then grouped together in a report of a thousand pages. This is the first global soil condition study. And his report is alarming.

A situation that causes conflict

Soils lose quality when they are overexploited or poorly exploited. Cultivable land is becoming less and less numerous on the surface of the planet and this will lead, more and more, to the populations to move. " By 2050, this degradation combined with the climate change problems, which are closely linked, will force 50 to 700 million people to migrate ," the researchers said.

According to the study, the most optimistic projections (50 million people forced to move to find better soil quality), will be achieved even if everything is put in place to reduce our impact and minimize climate change. The report also points out that " declining soil productivity makes societies more vulnerable to social instability, especially in dry regions, where years of very low rainfall have been associated with rising violent conflict going on. up to 45% ". Soil degradation would be a source of war.

87% of wetlands lost

In some parts of the world, soils no longer fulfill their role of water filtration, carbon storage or fertilizers. Several reasons explain this situation, such as the decline of biodiversity and deforestation. A quarter of the lands today escape the phenomenon. This figure will fall to 10% in 2050. IPBES also pointed out that 4 / 5th of the world's population lives in areas threatened by lack of water. " We have transformed much of our forests, our grasslands, we have lost 87% of our wetlands (…) We have really changed the Earth's surface ," said Watson, president of the IPBES. " Tropical forests have historically been sparsely populated because it was difficult to get in. Today we build roads, we introduce agriculture ," he said. to AFP Robert Scholes, one of the co-authors of the report.

The effects of this critical state of the soil are already being felt since they constitute the first cause of disappearance of animal and plant species. Friday, March 23, 2018, the IPBES had also made a worrying verdict on the biodiversity of the planet, threatened, according to her, by the first mass extinction of species since that of dinosaurs and the first caused by humans

Vicious circle

Soil degradation is already affecting the well-being of more than 3.2 billion men and women. Indeed, the deterioration of the land is accompanied by the deterioration of food security and the health of human beings. Soil degradation also contributes to worsening climate change. For example, deforestation and reduced soil capacity to store carbon that causes climate change contribute to the greenhouse effect. A real vicious circle that also affects animals and plants. The loss of biodiversity is expected to be 38-46% by 2050. " Soil degradation, biodiversity loss and climate change are three facets of the same important challenge: the increasingly dangerous impact of our choices about our natural environment "said Robert Watson. It must be understood that the future of the land will define the future of humanity.

For researchers, intensive agriculture is an important factor in this deterioration of soils. The IPBES study highlights the over-consumption of developed countries and the increasing consumption of developing countries. All this while the world population is increasing more and more. But other factors also bear responsibility, such as logging, mining and oil extraction, or excessive and uncontrolled urbanization.

Still Possible Solutions

Researchers have also proposed measures to limit damage before it is too late. Thus, they emphasized that soil restoration would yield 10 times more benefits than their degradation currently costs. For regions like Africa or Asia, the cost of inaction to land degradation is at least 3 times the price of the action. The researchers also stressed the need to coordinate international, national and individual actions, which are now fragmented.

Scientists have proposed re-flooding dry swamps and stopping water pollution from mining, agriculture and industry at the source. In cities, the report recommends "green infrastructure" such as parks, reintroduction of native plant species, sewage treatment and river rehabilitation.

But it is agriculture that has a major role to play. It would be necessary to change several methods. So plowing the land can make it vulnerable to erosion and release the carbon it has captured, aggravating global warming. It has long been thought that this technique was used to aerate the soil, but today it is known that it destroys all the biodiversity contained in the earth. In terms of agriculture, subsidized fertilizer costs farmers very little. They are therefore pushed to use them. IPBES recommends replacing what they consider to be " perverse incentives, which promote soil degradation" through positive measures of sustainable management. Better labeling is also recommended by researchers. They want to leave consumers the choice to buy products with a more or less negative impact on the planet.

Finally, for IPBES, governments should take into account the protection of the planet in their decisions and coordinate them, stop fragmenting agriculture and environment on one side, economy, energy, infrastructure on the other. In itself, no longer isolate the theme of the environment. Experts also insist on a concerted vision at the international, national and individual levels, including indigenous and local communities.

Robert Watson says: " implementing actions to combat land degradation can transform the lives of millions of people around the world, but the longer we wait, the more it will become expensive and difficult to achieve "

The Intergovernmental Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES) was established in 2012 under the auspices of the United Nations. It now has 129 Member States. This platform aims to inform governments and the public on issues related to biodiversity changes. For this purpose, IPBES researchers carry out a regular synthesis of scientific knowledge.

143 million climate refugees by 2050?

The World Bank carried out the first study on the effects of climate change on the migratory flow. This study highlights three regions of the developing world, areas vulnerable to climate change. The study predicts 86 million potential "climate refugees" in sub-Saharan Africa, 40 million in South Asia and 17 million in Latin America. " These three regions of the world represent 55% of the population of developing countries and the millions of people concerned represent 2.8% of the population of these regions ," says the World Bank. In all, 143 million people would be forced to migrate within their own country, by 2050, to try to escape the consequences of global warming.

Three countries, three scenarios

The World Bank has chosen to highlight the situation of three countries in the three regions selected for the study: Bangladesh, Mexico and Ethiopia. "C countries have very different profiles in terms of climate, demography, migratory flows, livelihoods and development ," says the World Bank. In the worst-case scenario envisioned by the study, South Asia will have 40 million internal climate refugees in 2050, only a third of which are in Bangladesh. " In this country, almost half of the inhabitants are dependent on agriculture. The problems of water scarcity and declining agricultural production linked to climate change are likely to lead to large population movements "says the World Bank. In sub-Saharan Africa, rainfed agriculture is of great importance. The study indicates that "l projections project a growth of the Ethiopian population in the range of 60 to 85% by 2050, which will further accentuate the pressures on the country's natural resources. and on its institutions. "Finally, in Mexico, it is the rainfed agricultural areas, mainly because of the decline in crop yields, that are expected to experience the largest outflow of emigration. " The country will experience a rise in average and extreme temperatures, especially in low-lying (and therefore warmer) areas, especially in coastal areas, particularly Yucatan", . World Bank.

All but one fatality

The inhabitants of these three countries would be forced to move because of water shortages, poor harvests due to drought, rising sea levels and worsening storms. These already known phenomena will push coastal populations to take refuge in the land. But the World Bank assures: " the number of these refugees could be reduced by 80% (more than 100 million people) if the international community intensifies its efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and that countries adopt sound development plans s "

Only a quarter of plastic packaging is recycled (60 million consumers)

Only 26% of plastic packaging is recycled and plastic items, such as toys, are unsuitable for recycling, according to a 60 Million consumer survey, while France aims for 100% recycled plastic in 2025.

"There is a huge problem in the recycling of plastics," says AFP Adeline Trégouët, associate editor-in-chief, who piloted the special issue of the magazine published on Thursday.

First, all plastic packaging does not end up in the recycling bin. And even when it does, "apart from bottles and flasks (480,000 tonnes), less than 3% of sorted plastic packaging (650,000 tonnes) was recycled in 2016," says 60 million consumers. "Most of these packages are multi-material and soiled, and low volumes or the complexity of sorting makes recycling too expensive," says the magazine.

In addition, packaging is only one-third of all the plastic consumed in France. There are many products, from toys, PVC garden furniture, disposable plastic gloves and expanded polystyrene trays, for which there is no recycling solution and which end up buried or incinerated.

Around 4.6 million tonnes of plastic products are put on the market each year in France. The government wants to achieve a recycling rate of 100% of plastics in 2025 and must present in March its roadmap on the circular economy.

Today, the share of recycled raw materials in the production of plastics remains marginale (6%), also reports the magazine. "We are far from a circular economy," says 60 million consumers. For Adeline Trégouët, it would be wise for "there is an eco-design of objects upstream" so that they are more easily recyclable.

60 million consumers also regret that the logo Green Dot continues to be a source of confusion. "Consumers think that the product is recyclable, or that it was made from recycled material" when it is bearing this logo, says Adeline Trégouët. In fact, it proves that the manufacturer pays a fee to the national sorting organization (Citeo). "Ideally, the Green Dot logo should be erased in favor of the Triman," a little man who indicates what is recyclable in a package, she estimates.