Question of the week: How many tons of CO2 are released by active volcanoes in the world?

" How many tons of CO2 are released by the volcano s in activity in the world? Go a little courage, answer! " launches Jean-Paul Robert on the Facebook page. Taking his courage in both hands, Sciences et Avenir dared to rub shoulders with Jean-Paul's question so that scientific truth would come out into the open. Tremble, volcanoes!

" The most common question I was asked (and still asked) during my 30s and some years as a geochemist specialized in volcano gases by both than scientists working in areas other than vulcanology, is "do volcanoes emit more CO2 than human activities?" ". Terrance Gerlach, a researcher at the US Geological Survey, finally came to grips with this issue. And he finally answered "no" in a study published in 2011 in Eos, a publication of the American Union of Geophysics.

Human activities emit 150 times more CO2 than volcanoes

] Terrance Gerlach compiled all the studies that measured the gas emissions of contemporary volcanic eruptions. It has reached a range of between 100 million and 500 million tonnes of CO2 emitted each year. Thus, at the height of its exceptional eruption in 2010, the Icelandic volcano Eyjafjöll emitted between 150 and 300,000 tonnes per day.

Emissions from human activity are much higher. In 2017, they reached 36.8 billion tons 150 times more! Volcanic eruptions influence the global climate, but not by their greenhouse gas emissions, but by their sulfur particles. These billions of tons of dust are indeed shielding solar radiation and prevent it from reaching the lower layers of the atmosphere. Volcanoes have a cooling effect rather than warming. The June 1991 eruption of Pinatubo, a volcano in the Philippines, caused a global cooling of 0.6 ° C.

400 ISIS Militants Released in Syria For War Against Turkey

The spokesman of the Turkish ruling Justice and Development (AK) party confirmed that 400 jailed ISIS militants had been released in northern Syria to fight Turkish troops.

"It has been confirmed that 400 prisoners of Daesh (another name ISIS) in Raqqa, Afrin and Deir ez-Zour, was released on condition that they will fight against Turkey, "AK spokesman Mahir Unal was quoted as saying by the Turkish news agency Anadolu Agency, This was conveyed amid the ongoing military operation of Turkey in Afrin, Syria to fight the Kurdish militia PYD / PKK regarded by the Ankara government as a terrorist organization.

"We have revealed how the relationship of PYD / PKK to Daesh in Raqqa uncovered … It has been confirmed that especially in Raqqa, Afrin and Deir ez-Zour, 400 Daesh militants are released from prison by PYD / PKK on battle against Turkey, "the spokesman said. 659002] The unal statement confirmed the statement of Russia's permanent representative to the UN, Vassily Nebenzia about the PYD / PKK group in northern Syria releasing 400 ISIS members in early January. It was delivered Nebenzia in a UN Security Council meeting.

According to sources to Anadolu Agency, the PYD / PKK group reached an agreement with ISIS to mobilize ISIS members to wage war against Turkish troops who were carrying out military operations in Afrin. The operation, named 'Operation Olive Branch' began on 20 January with the aim of expelling Kurdish militants, PYD / PKK and ISIS from Afrin.

The Turkish military says the operation aims to create security and stability along Turkey's borders, and to protect Syrians from the militants' suppression and cruelty.

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Got Arrested 2 Months Over, Prince Alwaleed Released

Prince Alwaleed bin Talal was released after being detained for more than two months. Previously he was arrested due to anti-corruption operation of 'Saudi Arabia's KPK'.

Reported by Reuters, the Saudi Arabia's free information is rumored by sources from the Alwaleed family. The release was only a few hours after Alwaleed was interviewed by Reuters.

[Gambas:Video 20detik]

"He has arrived home," said the source, quoted by Reuters on Saturday (27/1/2018).

However, until this news of freedom Alwaleed rolling, there has been no official statement from the authorities of Saudi Arabia. With the release of Alwaleed and several other tycoons on Friday (26/1) it indicated the fall of accusations that caused enough stir in business and politics in Saudi Arabia.

In a previous interview, Alwaleed had mentioned that he would be released within days. The reason, according to Alwaleed, in talks with the authorities, he remained innocent of allegations of corruption.

"There are no charges, there are only a few talks between me and the government," Alwaleed said in the interview.

Early November, dozens of princes, including Alwaleed, as well as senior officials and prominent businessmen were arrested when Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman ordered an anti-corruption operation. At that time a Saudi official said that Alwaleed was arrested on charges of money laundering, bribery and extortion of officials. Alwaleed was then held at the Ritz-Carlton luxury hotel in Riyadh for over the last 2 months.

For information, Alwaleed is one of the richest men in the world. He has a major stake in Twitter and Citigoup, he is also a key shareholder at 21st Century Fox. Alwaleed is even called 'Warren Buffet from Saudi Arabia'.

(nif / dkp)

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Anti-American clerics in Pakistan are released on deposit money

Pakistani authorities on Monday freed an anti-US and pro-Taliban cleric, Maulana Sufi Muhammad, after eight years in jail. He faced allegations of sedition and was allegedly involved in the attack on the police station.

While some parties in the country considered Muhammad's release as a bad omen, some others supported the move.

"He was 93 years old, severely ill, and can not be treated in prison.The Pakistani court has the authority to release sick and elderly people on bail, "said Latif Afridi, a lawyer and lawyer to the VOA.

Maulana Sufi Muhammad is considered one of many scholars controversial in Pakistan. He collected about 10,000 armed militants in 2001 in the tribal areas of Pakistan to fight against US-led forces in Afghanistan. He led the pro-Syariah movement in the province of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, in northwestern Pakistan in the early 1990s and 2000s ending with violence and extermination of his supporters in various regions of the province.

Afridim said Maulana Sufi Muhammad has long been imprisoned, but from 13 cases of prosecution against him there is proven in court, because it frees himself is a fair decision.

But human rights activist from Peshawar, Mehsood Alam, in an interview with the VOA, questioned why the decision was just taken now.

"The Sufis Muhammad's release by the Peshawar High Court is a newfound development, but in a country where the head of Jamaat-ud-Dawa (JUD) can be freed, why the Sufi Muhammad was not released immediately."

The United Nations and the United States classify the JUD as terror group. The JUD leader, Hafiz Saeed, allegedly the mastermind of the 2008 Mumbai attack, was released by Pakistani authorities on a court order last year. [ps/jm]

Kidnapped Afghan Officials in Pakistan Have Been Released

An Afghan official kidnapped in Pakistan last October has been released by his captors and has returned.

Qazi Mohammad Ahmadi, deputy governor of eastern province of Kunar, was kidnapped when he went to a doctor in Peshawar, near the border. No one has confessed to the kidnapping, and it is unclear who abducted him.

Ahmadi is a member of the Hezb-e-Islami party led by Gulbudin Hekmatyar, a former powerful regional ruler in the civil war of the 1990s and recently reconciled with the Kabul government.

Zardasht Shams, deputy Afghan ambassador in Islamabad, said Saturday Ahmadi has rejoined his family in Kunar. He said the brother of the official, Habibullah, who was also kidnapped, is still missing. The family has been contacted for ransom, but it is unclear whether a ransom was paid. [gp]