Salmon migration and Indian rights on the menu of the US Supreme Court

The very austere judges of the Supreme Court in Washington will escape Wednesday to the great outdoors of the American West, to look very seriously at the migration of salmon and the ancestral rights of Indian tribes. [19659002OfcoursetheywillmakethisjourneywithoutleavingtheirmajesticcourtroomwithmarblecolumnsonCapitolHillButthedebateswilltakethemphotosandtestimoniesinsupporteveninthebedoftorrentsthatrundowntheothersideoftheRockies

This transfer will also be temporal. Indeed, to grasp the issue of the issue to be decided, we must return to the nineteenth century.

This is the century of the Wild West conquest, adventurous settlers, the Great Plains Railway, the Telegraph, and the Indian Wars.

In the mid-1850s, not all lands in America were states attached to the Union.

The "Washington Territory" is to be found in the north-west of the country. His first governor, Isaac Stevens, is highly controversial as he is intractable towards the Amerindians.

– Sacrified Hunting, Preserved Fishing –

 A stele honoring Indian tribes who once fished for salmon in the Snake River in Washington State. Photo taken on June 7, 2005. (Getty Images North America / Getty Images / Archives - Jeff T. Green)

A stele honoring Indian tribes who once fished for salmon in the Snake River, Washington. Photo taken June 7, 2005. (Getty Images North America / Getty Images / Archives – Jeff T. Green)

Brutally repressing the revolts, Governor Stevens forces the tribes to sign treaties that rob them of their hunting territories.

Withdrawn from the reserves, the Indians retain in compensation a fishing right in the watercourses crossing their spaces. Salmon abound then

In detail, the treaty gives them a "right to harvest fish, at all customary and customary places and lands … in common with all citizens."

New leap in This time ahead: At the beginning of the 21st century, Washington State still has Indian reserves, whose inhabitants complain about the fall of salmon populations.

According to them, the shortage is accelerated because of the underground pipes through which rivers cross the hundreds of paved roads testifying to economic development.

These pipes, which open above watercourses, prevent the salmon from rising up the rivers to reproduce, or from down to the sea, as was shown by a study in 1997.

17 Years of Judicial Combat –

This is the starting point for a long legal battle launched in 2001 by 21 Indian tribes, backed by the US government as guarantor of the federal treaties. Their common opponent: the state of Washington.

The plaintiffs argue that the original treaty text implies that fish stocks are always sufficient to reasonably feed the tribes.

This fight saw the victory of the Amerindians in first instance (2007) and on appeal ( 2016), the justice ordering twice the suppression of the conduits channeling the rivers.

Washington's elected officials failed to choke on each of these setbacks.

Removing all the pipelines, in the name of salmon survival and in the name of respect for an old treaty of the colonial era, will cost the state $ 2 billion, they say.

 The future of salmon feeding the Indian tribes of the great west of America is examined Wednesday by the Supreme Court of the United States. Photo taken on April 4, 2018. (GETTY IMAGES NORTH AMERICA / AFP - Drew Angerer)

The future of salmon feeding the Indian tribes of the great west of America is examined Wednesday by the US Supreme Court. Photo taken on April 4, 2018. (GETTY IMAGES NORTH AMERICA / AFP – Drew Angerer)

The hour of the third round, decisive, has now struck the Supreme Court.

In this case mixing history, ecology, federalism, and Native American rights, Justice Anthony Kennedy recused himself because he had already dealt with this issue in the 1980s.

The future of Wild West salmon therefore depends on of the remaining eight judges

Human Rights Organization Tuding Afghan Forces Civilians Base

A global human rights organization called for Afghan and US military authorities to immediately investigate allegations that Afghan government forces execute civilians without legal process in recent counter-Taliban operations in southern Kandahar province. [19659002] According to a Human Rights Watch report Wednesday, allegations of human rights violations occurred from January 31 to February 1, when Afghan special forces, backed by US air strikes, carried out attacks in Maiwand and Panjwai districts. [19659002] The report quoted local residents as saying that Afghan forces opened fire on a number of people trying to flee from Band-e Timor, a region that has long been a stronghold of the Taliban.

Battle in Ghazni, Afghanistan Kills 7 Civilians

The attack killed 50 Taliban insurgents and at least 20 civilians. Government troops also allegedly dragged out some men from their homes and shot them.

Afghan Defense Ministry spokesman Dawlat Waziri said he had not been able to respond because he had not read the report. But Waziri insists the authorities immediately and thoroughly investigate all allegations of violations in combat.

See also: Pakistan Taliban Deputy Leader Killed by US Drone

"Opposition forces often deliberately occupy civilian homes for wanting civilian casualties. However, Afghan forces need to take all precautions so as not to harm civilians, "he said. [ab/lt]

Thousands of Pakistanis Attend the Cemetery of Leading Human Rights Activist

Thousands of Pakistanis crowded the streets of Lahore city on Tuesday (13/2) to bid farewell to one of the country's most prominent human rights activists, who died of a heart attack on Sunday at the age of 66. [19659002] Friends, family, politicians and human rights activists were among those who attended the Asma Jahangir funeral ceremony at the city's Gadhafi Stadium.

Jahangir is one of the founders of the Pakistan Human Rights Commission, a body that highlights human rights abuses throughout the country. He also serves as the UN special rapporteur on human rights issues. On his website, the international body praised Jahangir for his "contribution to human rights", which earned him numerous awards from home and abroad.

The US State Department said Tuesday that – along with Pakistan and other countries – the departure of democracy and human rights activists. [em/jm]

Human Rights Organization Called for Help for Civilians in Northern Myanmar

The International Human Rights Watch Human Rights Watch has urged the Burmese military to ensure humanitarian aid is received by all civilians affected by clashes between the military and an armed ethnic group in the north of the country.

The battle between the Myanmar military and the Kachin Laskar Kemerdekaan increased in mid-January, to include three cities in the state of Kachin. Laskar Kachin is one of the strong ethnic militia groups who have clashed with the military after the collapse of a 17-year truce in 2011. Since then, more than 120,000 people have taken refuge in the border region of China.

Read more: Aung San Suu Kyi Rejects UN Investigation on Alleged War Crimes in Myanmar

The New York-based human rights organization urges in a statement Friday (9/2) that the military Myanmar provides access to the delivery of humanitarian aid to civilians caught in the offensive by the current military who use heavy weapons and air strikes. [uh]

Germany demands the release of China's human rights lawyer

Germany demands that China release a prominent Chinese human rights lawyer accused of triggering subversion after uploading calls for democratic reform via the internet.

German human rights commissioner Barbel Kofler said this week, Yu Wensheng was innocent and only sought to voice the need for democratic reform and support a fellow Chinese citizen who was harassed for fighting for human rights.

Yu, an unofficial spokesperson for a Chinese human rights lawyer group, was arrested by police on January 19 while preparing to pick up his 13-year-old son at school. Police later informed Mr. Yu's wife of the arrest and her allegations. Triggering subversion is a frequent charge of Chinese authorities to silence dissidents.

Detention Yu extends his list of acts of repression against independent legal activists in recent years by the Chinese communist government.

His detention took place one day after he uploaded a a letter on the internet calling for the ruling party, or the only political party in China, to reform the constitution and hold a presidential election openly.

Yu received wide attention after being detained for three months in 2014. At that time he admitted to being tortured and interrogated when detained. In 2015, he was again detained but later released after his case attracted widespread public attention. [ab/uh]