ACCELERATION. " Obviously, zero risk does not exist ," warns Christophe Rousseau, deputy director of center for documentation, research and experimentation on accidental pollution (Cedre) ]. The sinking of an oil tanker on the French coast may quite occur in a more or less near future. It is thus obviously a human error which caused on January 6, 2018 the collision in the open sea of China of a Chinese bulk carrier with the Panamanian tanker Sanchi, last black tide in date which does not have for moment caused only occasional pollution on the southernmost islands of Japan. However, the sinking of the Amoco Cadiz caused an acceleration of the measures of prevention of these accidents.
" The approach of securing the transport maritime of hydrocarbons was already well underway before the Amoco, but this disaster undoubtedly accelerated the procedures judge Christophe Rousseau. The International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL) was adopted by the International Maritime Organization in 1973. This text regulates all types of pollution generated by merchant ships. either in operation or during an accident. Amoco Cadiz precipitated the adoption of annexes to the Convention on the Prevention of Oil Pollution and, in particular, introduced the obligation to build double-hull tankers, a measure which is mandatory for new vessels since 1992. This agreement also organizes the procedures for checking the condition of vessels by certifying bodies. The profession tries to reduce the number of "garbage" boats that are not properly maintained. This surveillance is, however, complicated by the persistence of flags of convenience and the difficulty of equipping ports throughout the world with the facilities necessary for such inspections.
Ready-to-use oil spill control equipment "in case "
The Amoco Cadiz, it is also the emergence of POLMAR plans instituted by circulars of 1978. In case of sinking at sea, the plane POLMAR / MER is triggered by the maritime prefect . To manage the protection and the cleaning of the coasts, the POLMAR / TERRE plan is entrusted to the prefects of the concerned departments. France has 13 storage and intervention centers where pollution control equipment is stored: floating dams, hydrocarbon recovery devices, pumps, generators. The Directorate of Maritime Transport, Ports and Coastal is responsible for ensuring that equipment such as alert procedures remain operational and supports studies and research to improve prevention. On the other hand, the towering wheeler Bourbon Bee based in Brest, is always ready to intervene in case of a problem in the "Ouessant rail".
Breton mayors are still mobilized
RESPONSIBILITY. Finally, the Breton elect also remain the weapon at the foot. Following the Amoco Cadiz, the mayors and general councilors founded the joint union for the protection and conservation of the north-west coast responsible for the recognition of the responsibility of the polluters of the Finistère and Côtes d'Armor coasts. This union was transformed in 2000 into a structure called "Vigipol" which broadens its action to the overall defense of the interests of the coastal communities in the face of the risks of maritime transport. Vigipol is mainly financed by the contributions of these communes.
These different approaches are still evolving and are subject to regular improvements. Thus, the MARPOL convention is enriched each year by new pollution prevention rules. Since September 2017, came into force the regulation on the treatment of ballast water . At the beginning of March, a whole series of measures was adopted including the creation of an International Certificate of Prevention of Oil Pollution "(IOPP certificate), a document given to oil tankers who are equipped with Filtration and oil / water separator designed to reduce water pollution during routine operations. Forty years later, zero risk still does not exist, but the risks have been significantly reduced.