Beginning in Brasilia of a week of indigenous mobilization

Hundreds of natives of different ethnicities settled Monday their "Camp Free Land", near the government palace in Brasilia, at the opening of a week of mobilization to claim their ancestral lands.

The demonstrations, organized each year, this time occurs in a political context considered hostile by indigenous leaders, who accuse the conservative government of President Michel Temer of refusing the delimitation of their territories – first step towards restitution of land – and to favor the agro-sector -industrial, powerful in Parliament.

"The political situation is very negative for us.It is the first government in history that has neither demarcated nor approved land.Temer will remain in history as president who has not agreed to dialogue with indigenous peoples, "said AFP Kreta Kaingang, representative of the Association of Indigenous Peoples of the Brazil (APIB)

"We know that international interests are great, in the mining and oil industry," he added.

In the afternoon, the organizers estimated more than 2,500 the number of natives arrived in Brasilia for this colorful mobilization, most of them having come in traditional clothes.

 Natives in

Natives in "Camp Free Earth", on April 23, 2018 in Brasilia (AFP – Carl DE SOUZA)

The other objective of this rally is to support indigenous candidacies for the presidential and legislative elections of October 7, said Kreta Kaingang, hoping to win a deputy seat and a Another is the Senate, which would be a first since the 1990s.

The organizers hope for a more peaceful mobilization than that of 2017, when clashes erupted between the police and hundreds of natives trying to enter the country. u Parliament to install replica coffins, a tribute to the natives killed in conflicts with farm owners.

NDDL: hopes of appeasement and high-risk week on the ZAD

A high-risk week opens for the government on the ZAD of Notre-Dame-des-Landes, which will show if appeasement prevails, while the deadline falls Monday midnight for the regularizations, and that a new operation of expulsion of the zadistes in an irregular situation is possible.

"The situation is calm, really calm this weekend on the ZAD", assured the gendarmerie which mobilized approximately 2,500 soldiers since the beginning of the operations evacuation on 9 April. "The strength of the gendarmerie is adapting to a situation that is calm," she repeated.

This "lull" after a week under high tension is in a context of extended hand of the zadistes Friday after the collective filing of forty files of agricultural projects or nominative projects.

They had responded to the urgent appeal Wednesday of the Minister of the ecological transition, Nicolas Hulot, opponent to the old airport project, which had blasted the "mess" and urged them "not to enter a spiral of confrontation, violence" and to seize "the hand of the government".

The prefecture has given until Monday evening to complete individual forms to include their name and outline of their project, a prerequisite for the eventual signing by the State precarious leases.

"The problem is not giving names, we wanted a collective project," explained "Camille", one of the ZAD spokespersons.

"We made the gesture that was Asked by the government, for us this gesture must be heard, the dialogue resumes, we leave the hellish cycle of imminent threat of further expulsion.The ball is in the government camp, "he said.

The fear of a new evacuation operation hangs among the Zadists after the "trauma" of the destruction of 29 squats last week that the Zadists consider their place of life. There are about sixty precarious settlements out of the total of 97.

"I lost my house, my life, I have nothing left but I will fight for the houses that remain," said Paul, one of the occupants on the site of 1,650 hectares of which 270 ha must be allocated by the State.

If the prefect of the Pays de la Loire Nicole Klein stressed the "heavy work" of the zadistes, the decision of evacuation is the head of the government.

– Firmness of Édouard Philippe –

Or, Edouard Philippe reiterated before the National Assembly that "the illegal occupants" who will not quickly regularize their situation "will leave the place" in Notre-Dame-des-Landes because "force must remain in the law".

Particularly delicate, as inherited from the decisions of the past five years, the Notre-Dame-des-Landes file is one of the tests of the capacity of President Emmanuel Macron and the government to resolve conflicts peacefully, while the social fronts are multiplying.

Several associations or collectives opposed to the airport project had urged the occupiers to regularize and agree to negotiate with the government.

The repetition of the barricades removed and immediately raised in a cloud of tear gas had ended tired local residents and even some zadistes who thought the method "counterproductive" when going back to the table discussions.

The 28 agricultural projects deposited at the prefecture will be evaluated Monday at the Chamber of Agriculture of the Pays de la Loire. But these projects do not create "any rights", Mrs Klein said Friday after a technical meeting with occupants of the ZAD.

Without any insurance, the zadists call "vigilance". "We are ready to mobilize if the government does not hear this gesture of dialogue," said one of the spokesmen of the zadists that does not exclude "a great mobilization" next Sunday.

NDDL: the situation remains stuck after more than a week of operations

On the eighth day of gendarmerie operations on the ZAD Notre-Dame-des-Landes, the situation remains blocked Monday, the police clearing barricades immediately rebuilt by the zadistes and their supporters.

After a calm night, and the televised speech of the President of the Republic Emmanuel Macron Sunday evening that recalled that "the republican order must be respected" on the ZAD, the gendarmes have recovered Monday morning, as every day, to clear the barricades installed in the night by the zadistes on the D81. Immediately the gendarmes left, the barricades had gone up again.

Pomegranate shots were still resounding on Monday, notably at "Gourbi", an emblematic place of life of the ZAD, destroyed last week, where the zadistes managed to transport a frame in the night.

About fifty of them protected this frame Monday morning, before being evacuated by the gendarmes who were busy in the middle of the morning to destroy it by sawing it in pieces. Then the zadistes returned from the gendarmes to rebuild the structure, before walking again in the afternoon on the ZAD.

"The destruction of this meeting place that the Gourbi is obviously that it reinforces us ", observes" Camille ", pseudo generic zadistes, a black scarf on the neck and ski goggles on the head.

Reinforcements come even from abroad, according to another" Camille ", anarchist of 54 years old. "There are Englishmen, Italians, Irish, Spaniards," she enumerates, rejoicing at this "big solidarity" and this "cohesion" recreated.

Trenches and barricades continued to be installed Monday afternoon. "They are barricades of defense to defend the places of life since Thursday the evacuations are stopped but it fart of everywhere.Even a symbolic construction as the Gourbi they destroyed it", estimates Claudine, 68 years old, occupying the camping of "White hair"

But some opponents reported their weariness in this state of siege. "I am revolted but the barricades it is not my conflict with me (…) I have the feeling that it is necessary to leave", estimates thus Julien, a inhabitant of the ZAD.

"D ' Firstly, because locals need access to their fields, it's no longer an occupation, it's a state of siege, because of the barricades, they make kilometers in the fields, "he says, preferring instead to enter into negotiations with the prefecture to "impose something".

An end of the clashes notably demanded by the Acipa, historical association, to restore the dialogue.

– "disorder" –

"You have people who come back and have nothing to do with the conflict but who just want the disorder, "denounced Sunday evening Emmanuel Macron.

Sunday the supporters of the zadistes had repeatedly attacked the positions of the gendarmes to large Molotov cocktail reinforcement, rockets and homemade bombs filled with steel balls.

Violent urts, on the sidelines of a peaceful rally of support for expelled from the ZAD which gathered Sunday several thousand people, made seven wounded side gendarmes.

Eight protesters were arrested Sunday, according to the prefecture of Loire-Atlantique .

An investigation of flagrance for aggravated violence was entrusted to the research section of Angers after a homemade bomb containing steel balls that wounded three gendarmes Sunday morning.

More than sixty gendarmes were wounded in a week, according to Emmanuel Macron. "This is unacceptable," he lamented.

The expulsion of illegal occupants from the ZAD, which mobilizes 2,500 gendarmes, began on Monday, April 9, and in three days 29 squats, on which were sometimes several buildings, were destroyed.

now focuses on the free movement of roads, the clearing of squats and the maintenance of order. But the Zadists called their reinforcements more and more on the spot, including "blacks blocks", to try to reinvest the destroyed sites.

The President of the Republic assured Sunday that "everything that will have to be evacuated will be "after the new period of regularization (23 April) left to the illegal occupants to regularize their situation.

Question of the week: How many tons of CO2 are released by active volcanoes in the world?

" How many tons of CO2 are released by the volcano s in activity in the world? Go a little courage, answer! " launches Jean-Paul Robert on the Facebook page. Taking his courage in both hands, Sciences et Avenir dared to rub shoulders with Jean-Paul's question so that scientific truth would come out into the open. Tremble, volcanoes!

" The most common question I was asked (and still asked) during my 30s and some years as a geochemist specialized in volcano gases by both than scientists working in areas other than vulcanology, is "do volcanoes emit more CO2 than human activities?" ". Terrance Gerlach, a researcher at the US Geological Survey, finally came to grips with this issue. And he finally answered "no" in a study published in 2011 in Eos, a publication of the American Union of Geophysics.

Human activities emit 150 times more CO2 than volcanoes

] Terrance Gerlach compiled all the studies that measured the gas emissions of contemporary volcanic eruptions. It has reached a range of between 100 million and 500 million tonnes of CO2 emitted each year. Thus, at the height of its exceptional eruption in 2010, the Icelandic volcano Eyjafjöll emitted between 150 and 300,000 tonnes per day.

Emissions from human activity are much higher. In 2017, they reached 36.8 billion tons 150 times more! Volcanic eruptions influence the global climate, but not by their greenhouse gas emissions, but by their sulfur particles. These billions of tons of dust are indeed shielding solar radiation and prevent it from reaching the lower layers of the atmosphere. Volcanoes have a cooling effect rather than warming. The June 1991 eruption of Pinatubo, a volcano in the Philippines, caused a global cooling of 0.6 ° C.

California Starts Selling Cannabis for Next Week Recreation

Sales of marijuana or marijuana for fun in the state of California will begin Monday, January 1. San Diego's marijuana seller will celebrate the day with music, sharing free shirts and inviting consumers to view their business.

But until Thursday afternoon (28/12), the new California state government issued 42 permits for retail merchants. A total of 150 permit applications are still being processed and officials say they will work hard to complete the licenses.

The cities of Los Angeles and San Francisco are still too late to issue local regulations, so cannabis shops will not start their businesses officially on Monday.

A survey conducted by Gallup polling agency this year shows 64 percent of Americans favor legalizing marijuana for fun. Prior to this, several states including California have authorized the use of cannabis for treatment.

Officially, federal regulations prohibit the use, possession, sale, planting and transport of marijuana in America. But the federal government also says the state government may authorize the use of marijuana for treatment and recreation, provided that everything should be regulated by law.

American states that have allowed the use of marijuana for treatment and recreation are: Alaska, California , Colorado, Maine, Massachusetts, Nevada, Oregon, Washington and the Capital of Washington DC. [Ap/ii]