Wind cheating: three years in prison required for former leader

Five years in prison, three of which were closed on Wednesday, March 21, 2018 to Orleans against the former leader of France Éoliennes in a vast affair of fraud involving on the marketing of defective domestic wind turbines which killed 600 people. The public prosecutor Jean-Dominique Trippier, representing the public prosecutor's office, justified his request for a prison sentence that was firm and unimaginable by the existence of " a major social disorder ". He asked that this sentence be accompanied by a test consisting of the former CEO of France Éoliennes to compensate the 600 civil parties.

Defective wind turbines, customers not delivered

It also asked the court to impose a fine of 200,000 euros and a definitive ban on running any business. " You are perfectly harmful for the economic life and you must be removed definitively ", considered Jean-Dominique Trippier. " White-collar crime does not exist, you are a delinquent, just like the traffickers of narcotics ", again launched the public prosecutor, at the end of an indictment essentially targeting the former CEO of France Éoliennes. Sentences ranging from one year to six months in prison and a fine of 50,000 euros were also required against two other directors of the company.

Between 2006 and 2009, the France Éoliennes company, based in Fay- aux-Loges (Loiret), approached individuals and farmers from all over France, to convince them to install a wind turbine on their property. It soon became clear that wind turbines made in China were of poor quality. They provided a power of 3 kilowatts (kW), when France Aeolian promised 5 kW. Some customers have never been delivered. In others, the equipment, charged between 15,000 and 50,000 euros, never worked properly and sometimes proved dangerous. Created in 2006, the company was finally placed in liquidation in July 2009. It then had a liability of five million euros.

40 years ago, the Amoco Cadiz bore the ribs of Brittany

The night is dark, the wind is blowing, the sea rumbles: the Amoco Cadiz, an oil tanker with 227,000 tons of crude oil, is slashing close to the Brittany coast, causing one of the worst oil spills in history . It was 40 years ago, March 16, 1978.

"When we saw this giant there, all lights on, at first we did not even realize," recalls Jean-Yves Letard, restaurateur since 32 years in Ploudalmézeau, on which depends the small port Finistère of Portsall face which ran aground the Amoco.

The Liberian tanker, recent but poorly maintained, transports to Rotterdam its cargo of crude oil loaded into the Persian Gulf. As the storm rumbled, he suffered a damage bar. After lengthy negotiations with a German tug and several unsuccessful attempts to tow, the Amoco Cadiz ran aground at 22H00 just two kilometers from the rugged coastline of Portsall.

On board the monster 334 meters long, 34 men and a woman. They will all be saved, despite the lack of information available to the authorities. "The only indication we had was + an oil tanker was stranded off Portsall, go see what you can do +", told AFP Michel Le Gall, now 67, former chief ship aboard the Super Hornet of the Navy arrived first on the scene.

"The sea was black, the boat we did not see it", remembers Yves Dagorn, 71 years old, co-pilot of this mission, explaining having spotted the tanker thanks to the lighthouse of the German tugboat. "We had to find where the crew was, if it was not in the sea, in the oil …"

 Aerial view of the beaches of Portsall, Finistere, covered with oil after the sinking of the Acomo Cadiz, March 20, 1978 (AFP / Archives - JEAN-PIERRE PREVEL)

aerial view of the beaches of Portsall, Finistere, covered with oil after the sinking of the Acomo Cadiz, the March 20, 1978 (AFP / Archives – JEAN-PIERRE PREVEL)

"The lighthouse illuminated the left wing of the Amoco and there, they were all piled one behind the other", segue Guy Le Nabat, 70 years , dropped aboard from the helicopter. "Everyone wanted to be hoisted first," he recalls.

-Silent and Apocalypse Silence-

After recovering some of the wrecked, the Super Hornet, to the maximum of its capacity, is forced to 'go lay down his passengers, to the surprise of Guy Le Nabat. "It was the first time that I was left like this, plan.The diver always leaves with his crew," says the former Navy, at the time lacking any means of communication with the aircraft

"All of a sudden, it was a silence, but a heavy silence, there was crackling, it was cold and then we slipped everywhere because of oil sprays," he recalls. The Super Hornet, preceded by a second helicopter, will eventually recover the last survivors.

"The Amoco Cadiz is a natural disaster, but there were no casualties, we managed to save all the Dagorn's former pilot "

Gradually, in contact with the pitfalls, the ship breaks up and its tanks begin to empty: in the early morning, while the pungent smell of oil penetrates into the homes for miles around, the vision is apocalyptic.

 Cleaning teams fight against the pollution that hit the Breton coast following the sinking of the tanker Amoco Cadiz facing the port of Portsall, Finistere, March 16, 1978 (AFP / Archives - JEAN-PIERRE PREVEL)

Cleaning teams fight against the pollution that hit the Breton coast following the sinking of the tanker Amoco Cadiz facing the port of Portsall, Finistere, March 16, 1978 (AFP / Archives – JEAN-PIERRE PREVEL)

"When we saw the consequences … it was dramatic!" recalls Jean-Yves Letard, thirteen years old at the time. "There was fuel everywhere, the birds fell into the water and could not come out any more, it was abominable."

Driven by winds and currents, the viscous magma soiled some 360 ​​kilometers of coastline, not to mention thousands of crude pancakes scattered far beyond. Between 19,000 and 37,000 birds die.

-Milliers of Volunteers-

For three months, 35,000 soldiers and thousands of volunteers from all over the country are tirelessly cleaning up rocks and soiled beaches, evacuating thousands of wastes, first of all with simple shovels and buckets or slurry manure from farmers.

Less than 10% of the oil will be recovered. The rest will evaporate or disperse in the sea at the mercy of currents and tides.

 The worst accidents of oil tankers (AFP - Simon MALFATTO)

The worst accidents of oil tankers (AFP – Simon MALFATTO) [19659008Heavywastesareprogressivelyevacuatedandtreatedbuttheotherslessdensearestoredinholessometimescoveredwithsimpletarpaulins

40 years of oil spills off the coast of Brittany produced hundreds of thousands of tons of waste, tens of thousands of which are still in the Finistère and Côtes d'Armor, in more or less tight pits , assures the Robin des Bois Association.

In addition to the environmental disaster, the economic consequences of the incident include 1,300 fishermen who remain on land for weeks at a time and nearly 7,000 tons of oysters are destroyed. Harvests of seaweed and shellfish are severely affected, as is the tourist season.

-A giant attacked in court –

The anger of the Bretons is keen. Quickly, 90 elected members, led by the former senator-mayor of Ploudalmézeau who died in 2014, Alphonse Arzel, unite in a mixed union, which later became Vigipol and has since been responsible for defending the interests of local authorities in the face of risks arising from maritime transport. At the time, the idea was to attack US justice, despite the reluctance of the French government, the Standard Oil Of Indiana, world oil giant and owner of the Amoco.

"It was a little naive, as we said, when we see who we were," recalls Joseph Patinec, former first deputy Ploudalmézeau. "One of the great victories is that they have gone hand in hand, and without failing to the end," he says.

After 14 years of struggle, the American company is recognized as sole responsible and must pay the equivalent of 35 million euros to Breton municipalities and 160 million to the state, which eventually joined the action of the mixed union: the "polluter pays" principle is finally applied.

disaster will lead to the gradual introduction of measures to reduce the risk of accidents and to acquire better weapons against pollution: a new Polmar plan is adopted, a navigation rail is created off Ouessant, a powerful tugboat is permanently assigned to the assistance of ships circulating in this rail, etc.

Could the disaster happen again? "No, the tragedy of the Amoco will not happen again in 2018," says AFP the maritime prefect of the Atlantic, Admiral Emmanuel de Oliveira, noting that "we could certainly improve security large ships ", while global shipping traffic is steadily increasing.

30 years later: the IPCC in 5 figures

On March 13, 2018 takes place the 47th meeting of IPCC the Intergovernmental Panel on the Evolution of climate . A true reference for policy makers, it assesses the state of scientific knowledge on climate change and the possibilities envisaged to mitigate or adapt to it. On the occasion of the 30th anniversary of the intergovernmental body, here are some key figures to better understand its role and functioning.

2500 scientists

In all, nearly 2500 scientists have taken part or are still working on development of a report, from writing to peer review. The 5th IPCC report (in 2014) was written by more than 830 authors. None of them are paid by the group for their work, the scientist always depends on his laboratory of origin. Added to this figure are the "contributing authors". Their mission: to provide technical information on a specific subject covered by the chapter

The role of scientists does not stop there. The first phase of proofreading is provided by experts who are in charge of commenting on the exact and exhaustive nature of the writings. They compose a review committee following the invitation by the IPCC or at their own request. During the writing of the last evaluation report, nearly 2000 experts provided 140,000 re-reading comments.

6 million euros

The annual IPCC budget amounts to about 6 million euros and the 195 member states contribute voluntarily. The United States, whose financing amounted to approximately 1.6 million euros, decided to cease their contribution in 2016. To compensate for this drastic decline, France reassessed in 2018 its contribution to a million dollars. euros until 2022 – This funding is provided through the Ministries of Ecological Transition, Foreign Affairs and Research

5 reports

The IPCC has published 5 evaluation reports since its creation: in 1990, in 1995, 2001 2007 and 2014 . A report is usually composed of three volumes that correspond to the analyzes of the three IPCC working groups. Each tackles an area:

· The Physical Basis of the Climate System and Climate Change

· The Impact on the Socio-Economic Sector and Systems and options to adapt to it

· options for mitigating the phenomenon with lower greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) [19659016] There is also a "task force" that develops methodological monitoring of GHGs around the world

IPCC members do not carry out scientific research but evaluate and synthesize work carried out in laboratories all over the world. The 5th report summarizes, for example, 9,200 studies.

2,000 to 3,000 pages

Initially composed of several hundred pages, the IPCC reports are now more extensive and reach two or three thousand pages. For greater clarity, they provide policy makers with a document summarizing their analysis. All reports are freely available online … provided you can read in English.

2022: the next report

The 6th report of the IPCC will be published in 2022. Three special reports will be written in parallel, one of which "the impact of a global warming of 1.5 ° C above pre-industrial levels and on the corresponding greenhouse gas emission trajectories "according to a press release of the Ministry of Ecological transition.It will be published in October 2018.

Sources: Understanding the IPCC better IPCC website Ministry of Foreign Affairs

Japan: the situation at the Fukushima power station 7 years after the tsunami

Seven years after the tsunami in March 2011, the long dismantling work continues at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, and another important milestone is set to begin this year, with the removal of fuel from the pool of one of the reactors

Fuel Removal

The hearts of reactors 1 to 3 melted at the time of the accident and must be cooled continuously. The TEPCO operator is still trying to locate the molten fuel precisely in these three units, and then implement the necessary conditions to extract it.

Currently, observation missions using Remote controlled robots are used to try to clear a passage and observe the inside of the reactors.

However the delicate process of extraction, for which the technical means remain to be developed, will not begin until 2021, Tepco had recently indicated. 19659002] In the meantime, the company said it could start "in the middle of the 2018 budget year" the work of removing the fuel assemblies from the unit 3 deactivation pool. The construction of a roof above This basin was completed at the end of February to prevent leakage of radioactivity during extraction.

This operation is planned only for units 1 and 2 starting in 2023.

At reactor 4, the core of which has not melted, the removal work of the fuel assemblies located in the pool were completed in late 2014.

Further away, reactors 5 and 6 were less affected and did not present the same difficulties.

The puzzle of contaminated waters

An impressive a quantity of water is used to cool the reactors, to which are added the rainwater that is contaminated by crossing the plant.

In total, about 1 million m3 of water is stored on the site, mainly in a thousand vats, and this volume is increasing daily.

Tepco was able to divide by four to "about 100 tonnes per day "the rate of increase in the volume of contaminated water, according to Naohiro Masuda, responsible for the dismantling within the group.

An underground ice wall has been in place around buildings since mid-2017 to prevent water are not soiled in contact with the installations.

To limit leaks, a waterproofing wall has been in place since 2016 on the sea side, while the ground of the plant has been almost entirely concreted.

The water is already partially treated but no solution has not yet been found to eliminate one of its radioactive elements: tritium

In the long run, it could well be rejected at sea, as some experts recommend, but the government has not yet made a decision. "Different technical options are under discussion", according to Satoru Toyomoto, one of the dismantling officials at the Ministry of Industry.

Worried about the already degraded image of the region, Fukushima Governor Masao Uchibori called the Government and TEPCO "to consider the possible social and reputational impact (of the region) in their thinking."

Storing solid waste

TEPCO expects to store 750,000 cubic meters of solid waste 2029, including a radioactive part, against 350,000 m3 last year. An important work of characterization of this waste, whose composition and levels of radioactivity will be very disparate, will have to take place.

Eight storage buildings were built and a construction site for a ninth began last month. Other storage structures are planned.

'Improvement of Working Conditions'

About 6,000 people work on the site every day, a decrease from previous years and, according to Tepco, "the conditions working "thousands of stakeholders on the site" improve "gradually.

Between April 2017 and December 2017, 58 workers received a cumulative dose of more than 20 millisieverts (mSv), the annual limit for nuclear workers, according to the company's estimates. There were still 216 between April 2016 and March 2017.

While there is the problem of keeping competent players on the spot for decades when young people are loath to enter this discredited sector, Naohiro Masuda assures that Tepco has "stabilized the situation in terms of the need for manpower. "

Seven years after Fukushima, associations denounce the "myth of a safe nuclear"

Seven years after the disaster of Fukushima, several hundred demonstrators met Sunday in Paris at the call of the network "Sortir du nucléaire" to denounce the "myth of a nuclear safe," said a journalist AFP.

At 14:46, when an earthquake struck Japan on 11 March 2011, about 100 of them laid down in homage to the victims of the deadly tsunami and the nuclear disaster that caused it.

The network's associations demand the closure of French nuclear power stations and the disarmament of France, opposing in particular the projects of Bure (burial) and Flamanville (new EPR reactor).

"No satisfactory solution. currently exists for the management of long-term purchases, "said Catherine Fumé, administrator of the network" Sortir du nucléaire ", denouncing the situation of the nuclear workers and the numerous incidents in the power plants. nçaises.

 Demonstration to get out of the nuclear power, seven years after the disaster of Fukushima, March 11, 2018 in Paris (AFP - STEPHANE OF SAKUTIN)

Demonstration to get out of the nuclear power, seven years after the disaster of Fukushima, March 11 2018 in Paris (AFP – STEPHANE OF SAKUTIN)

"The opposition to the nuclear, when it is not criminalized, is considered an attack at the level of France", condemned Catherine Fumé, while the group EDF signed an agreement in India on the industrial plan for the Jaitapur power station project, which is billed as the largest nuclear project in the world.

The public health researcher Annie Thébaud-Mony denounced the " myth of a safe nuclear "and paid tribute to the nuclear workers" irradiated as much as invisible "," against the cynicism of those who employ them ".

This Paris demonstration also kicked off the a vote n on the exit of the nuclear power, organized by the insubordinate France and line and in polling stations from March 11 to 18.

 Demonstration at the call of the network

Demonstration at the call of the network "Sortir du nucléaire ", seven years after the disaster of Fukushima, March 11, 2018 in Paris (AFP – STEPHANE OF SAKUTIN)

Former Japanese Prime Minister Naoto Kan, stationed during the disaster and become a fervent antinuclear militant, must Monday in Paris where he will begin a tour that will pass through the National Assembly, Flamanville and the European Parliament.

"If everything goes wrong, a nuclear accident has consequences much more terrifying than the most terrible wars" , said Naoto Kan in Le Parisien dated Sunday.